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Souvenir of Western Women 

Edited by 



• • • ,• ••• .•••• • • • • , 


Copyright. 1905, by Mary Osborn Dtiuthlt 

Presses of 

Anderson & Duniway Company 
Portland. Oregon 


HE SOUVENIR OF WESTERN WOMEN bears upon its pages 
a complex picture of the works and pioneer experiences of the 
women in the Pacific Northwest — ^the **01d Oregon'' countrj^ — 
from the time of woman's first appearance in these unexplored wilds 
to the present day. 

The purpose of this book is to record woman's part in working out the 
plan of our Western civilization; no other civilization, perhaps, bearing so con- 
spicuously the imprint of her hand and her brain. In coming to this country 
through all the perils, privations, and hardships of the longest journey ever 
made by a migratory people in search of homes, she marched side by side with 
man. Upon arriving here she could acquire equally with him a part of the 
public domain (the first instance of the kind on record). 

In patience, courage, and endurance, woman proved man's equal. In 
her ability to cope with strenuous conditions, she was again his recognized peer. 
The powers thus engendered within her must perforce have left an indelible 
impression on the body politic. Their dominance is apparent in our colleges and 
universities, all of which are builded upon co-education as a comer-stone, and 
all of which also accept women as co-members of the faculty. 

From the beginning of statehood in all the states carved out of the 
**01d Oregon" country, women have been admitted to the practice of the pro- 
fessions on an equality with men. In the legislative halls woman's voice Uas 
been heard, and some of our most salutary laws owe their origin to her 

In property rights woman enjoys far greater privileges here than in the 
older portions of our country. These Northwestern States are among the 
few in the nation that make the mother a legal custodian of her children, and 
entrust her with the property of minor heirs. From a national point of view 
greater yet is the outcome of woman's presence here. To the pioneer woman — 
without whom permanent settlement could not have been made — the nation 
owes the very possession of this great Western territory. 

Captain Gray made the discovery of the Columbia River (1792), and this 
discovery laid claim to the vast tract drained by it and its tributaries. Lewis 
and Clark, led by the *' Bird woman," marked the way to it across the con- 
tinent (1805). The good missionaries brought to its wild native peoples, 
thirty years later, the ** White Man's Book of Heaven," the forerunner of civ- 
ilization ; but the combined effort of all these could not have held this country 
for the United States had it not been for the pioneer American women, who. 



braving all dangers and hardships, came with man to build homes and estab- 
lish permanent settlements. 

Let our debt of gratitude be now acknowledged and duly recorded, that 
those who come after us may know and value the deeds of the women who first 
trod these plains and valleys wherein we dwell. These pioneer women we 
herein represent, and transcribe upon the pages of history the story of their 
lives. Numbered among the writers of these chronicles is the second white 
child born in this unexplored land, Mrs. Eliza Spalding Warren, daughter 
of Rev. and Mrs. H. H. Spalding, missionaries of 1836. Among them, also 
are some of the pioneers of ^43, '44 and '45, whose hands rocked the cradle 
of liberty in these Western wilds when the triple states carved out of ^the 
**01d Oregon" country were yet in embryo. Voices from the past, they en- 
chant us with their fairy-like lore and heroic deeds. 

That many, far as well as near, may share the charm of the last recitals of 
these old pioneers and catch the inspiration of their unflinching courage. 
The Souvenir would bear their messages through the land. 

Portland, Oregon, May 1, 1905. 



A Few Eecol lections of a Busy Life — By Abigail Scott Duniway U 

Curator Lake— By ^yill 0. Steel ; 13 

A Legend of Crater Lake 13 

"Narcissa Prentiss Whitman — By Catherine Sager Pringle 17 

^ Mrs. Whitman's Diary 19 

The Ijewis and Clark Exposition — By Jefferson Myers 23 

The Oregon Grape — By Eunice \\\ Luckey 24 

'Roman Catholic Women of the Northwest — Contributed 25 

-'Beminiscences of a Trip Across the Plains — By Mrs. Burnett 27 

A Brave Life and a Useful One 28 

Wannetta (a story) — By Julia C. La Barre 29 

Moriah Maldon Grain 34 

Sujsan B. Anthony's Visits to Oregon — By Abigail Scott Duniway 36 

Life of Mrs. W. H. Gray 38 

Pioneer Women of Methodism in the Northwest — By Mabel llaseltine 41 

Abigail Scott Dimiwav, Mother and Home Builder 43 

Charlotte Moffott Cartwright 44 

Sketch from Life of a Pioneer Minister — By Rev. J. A. Hanna 47 

Eliza Spalding Warren 49 

A Pioneer Country Physician — By Dr. Rovia E. Alexander 51 

St Mary's Academy, Jacksonville, Or 53 

Babies of the Pioneers (Poem) — By Eunice W. Luckey 54 

Some Early Oregon Schools — By Marianne Ilunsaker D'Arcy 55 

'liife Sketch of Mrs. Mary A. Denny .' 59 

The Dawn of the Sea Wind (a story) — By Miriam Van Waters 61 

St. Mary's Academy and College 65 

Ezra and Lucy Taft Fisher — By Sainh Fisher Henderson 66 

Dame Nature's Monument 69 

The Two Islands * 69 

Sealth and Angeline — By Mi^s E. L Denny 70 

The Allen Preparatory School 71 

Pioneering in Legislative Halls 72 

/Home Iiife of Eva Emery Dye 74 

In the Very Early Days of Oregon 75 

St. Helen's Hall 76 

Bishop B. Wistar Morris — By Mrs. Belle J, Sellwood 77 

Oregon Conservatory of Music 78 

Woman's Work Among the Friends or Quakers — By Mrs. E. A . T. White 79 

Mrs. Emiline Himes — By George H. Himes 81 

Julia (West) Lindsley— £y Meldon 83 

Washington Women's C-lubs — By Jenette S. Moore 84 

Behnke- Walker Business College 85 

St. Peter's Church and Its Ivy-Clad Tower — By Elizabeth McCarver Harris.. 80 

My Mother's Flower Garden — By Charlotte Matheny Kirkwood 88 

.Vomenclature of Northwest Mountains — By George H. Himes 89 

A Grandmother's Story of Early Days in Washington — Author imknown 91 

Hill Military* Academy, Portland, Oregon 94 

Early Portland Schools — By Alice P. Cornwall 95 

Woman Workers of the Episcopal Church — By Louisa A. Nash 99 

Helen F. Spalding — By Mrs. Catherine A, Cobum 103 

Woman Suffrage in Washington Territory — By John Miller Murphy 104 

CONTENTS— Continued 


Academy of The Holy Names, Seattle, Wash 108 

Baptist Women in the Pacific Northwest — By Ellen Scott Latoureite 109 

Scenic Attractions of the 1906 Exposition — By William Biitle Wells 113 

Raising the Flag Over a Northwest Schoolhouse — By Dr. N, J. A. Simons, . . .115 

Woman Suffrage in Idaho— -Sy William Balderston 117 

The Ladies' Relief Society 119 

Illustrative Shorthand 120 

Women's Club Work in Idaho 121 

Scenes About the IIouic of My Childhood — By Mary Oshom Douthit 123 

Prances Fuller Victor — By Edna Isabel Protzman 125 

Seattle Seminary 127 

The Oregon Women's Flax Industry— % Mrs, W. 1\ Lord, Salem, Or 128 

Pine Needle Industry— 5y Mrs, W, P. Lord 131 

St. Teresa's Academy, Boise, Idaho 132 

Pioneer Days of Mrs. Matilda Frost 133 

The Mercer Girls— % C, B. Bagley, Seattle, Wash 135 

The Portland Woman's Union — By Elizabeth Story Hamilton 137 

The College Girl (Poem)— By Eva Emery Dye 139 

In Memory of Narcissa White Kinney — By Mrs. Henrietta Brown 140 

Addison Crandall Gibbs, Oregon's War Governor — By Mrs. A. C. Gihhs 142 

Ontario Then and Now — By Miss Maiy Locey 143 

Grant County, the Place for Homeseekers 145 

Portland Academy 147 

Gillespie School of Expression 148 

/Women in Medicine — By Annice Jeffreys Myers, M. D 149 

Work of Unitarian Women in the Northwest — By Kate Stevens Bingham- 153 

The Baby Home— 5y Mrs, Charles E, Sitton 157 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union — By Lucia H, Faxon Additon. . . .159 

The Woman's Emergency Corps — By Mrs, Henry E. Jones 161 

What Christianity Has Done for the Indian Woman — By Miss Helen Clark. . . .163 

Woman's Clubs in Oregon — By Jennie C, Pritchard 166 

Council of Jewish Women — By Mrs, Blanche Blumduer .167 

A Scrap From an Old Diary— 5y Mrs. E. M. Wilson 168 

' The Woman on the Farm — By Mrs. Clara Humason Waldo 169 

The Woman's Relief Corps — By Mrs. Julia A. Kemp Ijawton 172 

Mrs. Catherine A. Cobum — By Miss Helen F. Spalding 173 

The Homeward March of the Old Pioneers (Poem) — By June McMillen Ordway,174: 

James Harrison and Lueza Osborn Douthit 175 

Judge Pratt in Bedticking 179 

Domestic Science — By Mrs. Mary E, Young 181 

Roads and Railways — Early History — By J. Gaston 183 

Mineral Springs, Nature's Health Reservoirs — By Wallis Nash 186 

The Visiting Nurse Association — By Mrs. B. H. Trumbull 187 

The Newill Riverview Academy 188 

Sacajawea, the Birdwoman. 189 

The Spirit of the Pioneer Mother — By George H. Himes 191 

Women on Public Boards — By Mae H. Cardwell, M. D 192 

Home Life of Chinese Women in the Vfi^st—By Mrs. W. S. Holt 193 

The Yoimg Women's Christian Association — By Mrs. Jessie M, J farify man. . .194 

Kindergarten in the Northwest 195 

Art in the Northwest — Extracts from Fine Arts Journal 196 

Life in a Mining Camp — By Mrs. J. L. Goodyear 197 

Some Things About the Pacific Monthly 199 

Honor Where Honor Is Due 200 



Crater Lake (in colors) Frontispiece 

Abigail Scott Duniway (half-tone) 1> 

Tndian Woman of the Umatilla Tribe KJ 

Forestry Building — Lewis and Clark Exposition 22 

JeflFerson Myers 2'5 

Esplanade and Terraces — Northern Approach to Exhibit Palaces of Lewis and 

Clark Fair 24 

Indians of the Plains 26 

Portland-on-the- Willamette — A seaport 110 miles inland 33 

Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Gray (half-tone) 39 

Tavlor-Street M. E. Church 41 


Mrs. C. M. Cartwright and Grandson 44 

First House in Portland 45 

Rev. J. A. Hanna (photographed at eighty) 46 

Dr. W. F. Alexander (photographed at eighty) 50 

The Natatorium, Boise, Idaho 58 

Specimen Lumber Tree of the Oregon- Washington Forests 60 

St. Mary's Academy and College 66 

Dame Nature's Monument 68 

Home of Eva Emery Dye 74 

St. Helen's Hall , 76 

Bishop B. Wistar Morris (half-tone) 77 

Miss Mary B. Bodney (half-tone) 77 

Block Houses and Pioneer Printing Office at Lapwai 80 

St. Peter's Church, Tacoma 86 

The Three Sisters — ^View of North and Middle Peaks 87 

Mount Eainier (in colors) 89 

Hill Military Academv, Portland, Or. 94 

Portland High School 97 

Trinity Episcopal Church, Portland, Or 98 

Miss Helen F. Spalding (half-tone) 103 

Academy of the Holy Names, Seattle, Wash 108 

First Baptist Church (the White Temple) 109 

First Baptist Church West of the Kocky Mountains 110 

Mount Hood Front Cover and 112 

Mount Adams 113 

Roberts Brothers' Department Store 116 

Shoshone Falls of Snake Eiver — 60 Feet Higher than Niagara 122 

Prances Puller Victor (half-tone) 125 

Yakutat Indian Basketry 126 

Seattle Seminary 127 

Midwinter Scene in Southern Oregon 130 

St. Teresa^s Academy, Boise, Idaho 132 

Eva Emery Dye (half-tone) 138 

Narcissa White Kinney (half-tone) 140 

Sheep-Shearing — ^Ranch of James Small (photographed by Herman Putzion) . .145 

Hydraulic Mining — Pipeman and a Giant Stream 140 

Mrs. Emma Wilson Gillespie 148 

The North Pacific Sanatorium 152 

Rev. T. L. Eliot (half-tone) 154 

First Unitarian Church 155 



The Baby Home 158 

Song of the Klootchman 162 

The Pillars of Hercules 171 

Mrs. Catherine A. Cobum (half-tone) 173 

James Harrison and Lneza Osborn Douthit 175 

James Harrison Douthit (from dagiu^rreotvpe) 176 

The Washington, Seattle, Wash ". 180 

The Crystal Springs Sanitarium 182 

The Jfewill Riverview Academy 188 

Chinese Mother and Children, Portland, Or ' 193 

Sacajawea Monument Back Cover 


A Few Recolledtions of a Busy Life 


LTHOUGH the writer hereof began to see in the early 'SOs the 
need of a radical innovation in governmental affairs which should 
recognize the legal existence of wives and mothers, she did not, 
for a long time, comprehend the fundamental principle of equal 
rights, as embodied in the law-mating power itself. 

In the Territorial days, prior to the year lSo9, the States of Washington 
and Idaho, with a large slice of 
Montana, comprised a compo- 
nent part of the great original 
Oregon domain. Settlements of 
white people were few and far 
between. Women were rela- 
tively scarce, especially on the 
ranches: and bronzed and nig- 
ged bachelors, from far and 
near, sought freijuent relief 
from their own household la- 
bors by mobilizing themselves 
at the border cabins, where 
mothers of young children wres- 
tled, as best they could, with 
the crude surroundings of their 
scant environments, to provide 
for the daily needs of their own 
rapidly increasing families and 
the added requirements of a 
free hotel. 

With the border woman's 
mental vision continually ex- 
panding under the inspirations 
afforded by the virgin opportu- 
nities with which the new country was teeming, she f<mnd herself handicapped 
by a chronic condition of financial nonentity, to which no amount of laudation 
by the said bachelors could reconcile her reasoning faculties. 

As I had been blessed with a more than usually harmonious marriage, 
and enjoyed the natural ability to express my ideas on paper in a somewhat 


4 » - ■> 

• • - > 


marked degree, it devolved upon me to voice the opinions of many women 
who were too timid, or were not allowed by their husbands to speak for 

Like the man or woman of ante-bellum days who was ready at all times 
to assist a runaway slave to gain his freedom, but failed to comprehend the 
causes underlying his predicament, I for many years contented myself with 
the bestowal of unstinted sympathy upon women who were not in a position 
to speak in their own defense. But as the years went on, and I grew in 
wisdom, I could not help realizing that the women whose husbands would 
sell our butter and eggs, pigs, chickens and dried berries, to assist in the 
pajTnent of taxes, in the distribution of which we had no voice, were being 
** taxed without representation and governed without consent." After leaving 
the farm and becoming a school teacher — a change made necessary by an 
accident that befell my good husband in the early '60s — ^we settled in the 
town of Lafayette, where for three consecutive years (or until I became a 
tolerable scholar myself) I gave up the double occupation of teacher and 
boarding-house keeper, and we removed to Albany-on-the-Willamette. Here, , 
after another year only of teaching (without the boarders) I embarked in 
trade. Prior to that time I had been brought into contact with the women 
of the farms. 

As it was during the six strenuous years that I spent in trade that I 
learned the absolute need of woman's full and free enfranchisement, I will, 
by way of illustration, relate as briery as possible a few of the incidents that 
gradually awakened ray understanding. 

One day, late in the '60s, while I was busy in the work-room of my little 
store, engaged in making some fashionable millinery for an estimable woman, 
who, having married or inherited a competence, thought all other women 
ought to be content with their lot, a faded little over-worked mother of half 
a dozen children came to me in sore distress, saying that her husband had 
sold their household stuff and departed for parts unknown. Then she told 
me of a family about to leave the town who would sell her a lot of furniture 
and rent her their house at a reasonable figure. **If I could borrow the money 
in a lump sum," she said, **I could repay it in installments." **Then," she 
added, between sobs, **I could keep my children together, with the aid of a 
few boarders." 

After she had left the store, and while I was inwardly fuming over my 
inability to assist her, a well-to-do and charitable man dropped in on a little 
errand, to whom I related her story. 

**I'll loan her the money," he said, heartily. '*She can give me a chattel 
mortgage on the furniture." 

T gladly arranged a meeting between the parties; the exchange was 
made, and all was going well with the weary woman, when, one day, the 
husband returned as suddenly as he had departed, and, by repudiating the 
wife's note and mortgage, the sovereign citizen and law-making husband 
nullified the transaction and maintained the majesty of the law. The family 


was broken up and the husband and wife were soon figruring in the divorce 
court. It la needless to add that my philanthropic friend lost his money and 
became a forceful advocate of equal rigrhts for women. 

Another and later case was that of a woman in another county, whom I 
had long supplied with millinery and notions, on sixty days' credit, to support 
a little shop, in which she managed to earn an honorable livelihood for her 
growing family. Her husband, a well-meaning but irresponsible fellow, noted 
chiefly for poverty and children, was only one of the ^^unluckj'^" heads oi 
families everybody knows, whose wife must make the living — if there is any. 

One springtime, after I had concluded that this man's faithful and 
thrifty spouse had become sufficiently established to warrant the risk, I sold 
her a fine stock of millinery on credit. Her business opened with unusual 
promise, when, one day a stranger to her, who held a judgment against her 
husband on an old note (given prior to their marriage without her knowledge 
and renewed annually), came into the town, employed an attorney, attached 
her stock and closed her business. That was more than thirty-three years 
ago, and I still hold the woman's note for that stock of millinery. 

Prior to the year 1872 there was no married woman in all the great 
domain of the Pacific Northwest (except the comparatively few who held 
claims under the brief existence of the Donation Land Law) who possessed 
« right, after marriage, even to the bridal trousseau her father had given her 
as a dot. As the laws recognized the husband and wife as **one," and the 
husband was that **one," the wife was legally **dead," and was supposed, 
as a matter of course, to have no further need for clothes. 

For the foregoing reasons, and many others for which the limits of this 
chapter have no space, I was at last aroused to the necessity of demanding 
the ballot for woman; and, although at this writing the final victory remains 
to be won, so many concessions have been made, all trending in one direction, 
toward the objective goal, that it would be indeed an obtuse man or woman 
who would doubt our ultimate and complete success. 

The first law enacted by the Oregon State Legislature recognizing the 
legal existence of married women, called **The Married Woman's Sole Trader's 
Bill," was passed in the year 1872. This law enabled w^omen needing its pro- 
visions to register themselves as **sole traders" in the office of their county 
clerk, thus protecting their personal earnings, outside of the mutual living 
expenses of the family, from dissipation by the husband's creditors. 

A law enabling women to vote for school trustees and for funds and ap- 
propriations for public school purposes, **if they have property in the dis- 
trict on which they or their husbands pay a tax," was enacted in 1878. They 
were also empowered to fill the offices of state and county superintendents of 
schools, but the law was contested in 1896 by a defeated candidate and de- 
clared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. 

Public sentiment now encourages the employment of women as court 
stenographers, as clerks in both houses of the Legislature, on Legislative com- 
mittees, and in various other subordinate offices. They may serve as notaries 


public, and no profession or occupation is legally forbidden to them. All the 
large non-sectarian institutions of learning are open alike to both sexes. 

If either the husband or wife die intestate and there are no descendants 
living, all of the real and personal property goes to the survivor. If there 
are children living, the widow receives one-half of the husband's real estate 
and one-half of his personal property; but the widower takes a life interest 
in all of the wife's real estate, whether there are children or not, and all of the 
personal property absolutely, if there are no living descendants — ^half if there 
be any. 

All laws have been repealed which recognize civil disabilities against the 
wife which are not recognized against the husband except the fundamental 
right of voting and helping to make the laws which she is taxed to maintain, 
and to which, equally with man, she is held amenable. 

Of the growth of public sentiment regarding the ultimate extension of this 
right to women, it is significant to note that when a constitutional amend- 
ment to enfranchise woman was taken in 1884, the vote was, ayes, 11,223; 
noes, 28,176. And, although the population was more than doubled when 
the amendment was resubmitted in 1900, the vote throughout the state stood, 
ayes, 26,265; noes, 28,402. It will thus be seen that although the **no" vote 
was only augmented in 16 years by 226, the affirmative vote was increased 
by 15,042. One county gave a majority for the amendment in 1884. The 
vote in 1900 gave us two-thirds of the counties of the state. One county 
was lost by a tie, one by a majority of one, and one by a majority of thirty-one. 

As the right of suffrage — the foundation of all enduring rights — is the only 
right that can be withheld from women by the votes of all classes and condi- 
tions of men, it is the only right ever demanded by women which must come 
through a change in constitutional law. "Therefore," as Miss Anthony well 
says in her able and comprehensive summary of the state and national 
situation, ''this most valuable of all rights — ^the one that if possessed by 
women at the beginning would have brought all the others without a strug- 
gle — is placed absolutely in the hands of men, to be granted or withheld at 
will from women." (See History of Woman Suffrage, Vol. IV.) 

And yet, with all these odds against women, four of our Western States 
have already granted equal political rights to the wives and mothers of men. 
Wyoming came first, in 1869. Colorado followed by popular vote in 1893; 
and, in 1896, Utah and Idaho wheeled into line. The writer hereof has in 
hand enough of unimpeachable testimonials indorsing this movement from the 
best, ablest and most prominent men and women of each of these states to 
fill a volume. 

The women of Oregon are hopefully awaiting a third effort to secure 
their own full and complete enfranchisement, for which their friends, the 
best and foremost men of the state, are preparing to submit a vote at the June 
election of 1906, 


Crater Lake 


RATER LAKE is located in the summit of the Cascade Range of 
mountains in Southern Oregon, sixty miles north of California. It 
rests in the crater of Mount Mazama, which was originally one of 
the greatest mountains on the continent. However, it was wrecked 
by a volcano, at which time all that portion of the mountain above 
8000 feet elevation disappeared, leaving a ragged shell, or cauldron, four 
thousand feet deep and five and one-half miles in diameter. In the course 
of time 2000 feet of water collected, forming a lake that is unique in the 
world's history. It is one of the greatest natural wonders of the earth, and 
in many ways is remarkable. It is 6239 feet above sea level. The water is 
remarkably clear, but when undisturbed is the deepest blue possible to im- 
agine. From the surrounding rim this blue is intense, and is equally so when 
seen from a boat, but is then of a more brilliant hue. One who has never 
seen it can not comprehend the intensity of color. 

To the southwest is Wizard island, a round cinder cone 845 feet high, in 
the top of which is an extinct crater 500 feet in diameter and 100 feet deep. 
After the first great eruption the mountain fell within itself, and for a time 
existed as a turbulent sea of lava. Here and there little cones were formed 
by the lava bursting up, overflowing and cooling, and Wizard island was 
the last of such miniature volcanoes. About a mile north of it, however, is 
a similar formation 1200 feet high, the summit of which is 600 feet below the 
lake's surface. 

I first visited the lake in 1885, at which time it was only known to a 
comparatively few residents of Oregon. At that time I started a move to 
secure a national park, and after seventeen years was rewarded by getting 
President Roosevelt interested. With his characteristic energy he took hold 
of the matter, and Hon. Thomas H. Tongue's bill was immediately passed by 
Congress and signed by the President. 

In 1886 it was my pleasure to sound the lake for the general government, 
at which time boats were built in Portland and were taken to Ashland, 343 
miles south, where the running gear of a wagon was used to carry the largest 
one, the Cleetwood, one hundred miles into the mountains. It was then, with 
two skiffs, launched over the lake's walls one thousand feet to the water, 
where they all arrived in perfect condition and- were used to sound and sur- 
vey the lake. The deepest sounding was 1996 feet, but for several square 
miles in the northerly portion every sounding was over 1900 feet. 

A Legend of Crater Lake 

Wi-ma-wi-ta was the pride of his family and tribe, the Shastas. He 
could kill the grizzly bear, and his prowess in the fight was renowned even 


among those fierce braves who controlled the entrance to the Lake of the Big 
Medicine, where the black obsidian arrowheads are found. But the chase no 
longer had pleasure for him, and he wandered far up the slopes of the Shasta, 
where the elk and deer abound. From this great height Wi-ma-wi-ta gazed 
upon the lodges far below, and then suddenly descending, disappeared in the 
forest, advancing to the east, where springs the great, gushing sawul,!! the 
source of the Win-i-mim.** There in a little hut dwelt old Wiu-ni- 
shu-ya.f **Tell me, mother,^' he cried, **what can I do to regain the love 
of Tcul-u-cuH* She laughs at me, and the dog TsileuJ wanders with her over 
the snowclad mountain.'' 

** 'Tis well; Tcul-u-cul still loves you, but since your brave deeds among 
the Klamaths, your thoughts are far away, and you long for further peril, to 
chant your great exploits in the councils of the brave. Tcul-u-eul has noticed 
your neglect. Why, Wi-ma-wi-ta, do you not seek for greater glory ? Know 
you not of the great lake, far away and deep down in the mountain top. The 
way is long and difficult, and but few reach its rocky slopes. If you have the 
strength and courage to climb down and bathe in its crystal waters, you will 
acquire great and marvelous wisdom. Tcul-u-cul will look upon you with 
favor, and none will equal you among your people. The Lalos (children of 
the Great Spirit) guard the lake, and far in the past one of our own tribe 
reached it, but not propitiating the spirits, they killed him, and his body was 
sunk in the depths of the blue waters." 

Aa she spoke the old woman's strength increased. Wi-ma-wi-ta, listening, 
caught her energy. 

** 'Tis well, my mother; to-morrow, while all sleep, will I start upon this 
journey to the river where the Klamaths dwell. Then will I find the way to 
the wondrous lake and bathe in the deep water." 

While speaking, he noted not the parting of the brush, where Tcul-u-cul 
was concealed, and who in her fright almost betrayed her presence. Nor 
was Tsileu visible behind the granite rocks near by, eagerly watching and 
hearing all that happened. 

At dawn the following day, when even the dogs were still, Wi-ma-wi-ta 
stole quietly away. Close behind him, clad in the raiment of a young brave, 
followed Tcul-u-cul, and after a short interval, gliding stealthily in the tracks 
of the others, came Tsileu. Thus they marched for several long and weary 
days, over the prairies of Shasta and the dreary lava fields of Modoc, until 
Wi-ma-wi-ta reached the great river of the Klamaths. Then Tcul-u-cul came 
forth and accosted him. 

** Whither goest thon, Wi-ma-wi-ta, and why are you alone in this desolate 
place ? ' ' 

**I seek the great lake in the top of the mountain, to bathe in its limpid 
waters. ' ' 

** There would I also go and share your perils. 


.. Largo spring. ** McCloud River, f Forethought. ♦ The lark. | Red Flicker. 


** Tis well, and I will reward your faith in me." 

Tsileu, inwardly raging, cast a look of hate upon them, and sped north- 
ward through the land of the Elamaths. 

The next day Wi-ma-wit-a and Tcul-u-cul journeyed up the river. On 
the west high mountains rose up precipitously, while here and there a snow- 
clad peak towered in the sky. 

** 'Tis there,'' said Wi-ma-wi-ta, ** where we must seek for the deep moun- 
tain Like." 

At last, after many weary days, they reached the lake and made camp 
close to the precipice. All night Wi-ma-wi-ta chanted his song, and when 
the sun was just lighting up the circular wall across the lake, he clambered 
down the steep and rocky walls, and plunged into the deep, clear water. His 
spirit seemed to soar from him ; but it required all his strength to climb back 
to the rim of the crater. Next day he bathed again, and on returning said, 
**Once more only, Tcul-u-cul, will I have to bathe in the crystal water, then 
wisdom and strength will be mine, our tribe will be the grandest in the land, 
and you will be the greatest squaw of all. Thus will your faith and help to 
me be rewarded.'' 

On the third morning he started, but, just as he reached the last descent, 
he beheld Tsileu. 

*'Dog of Wi-ma-wi-ta, we will here find who is the greater man.'' 

Like two great whirlwinds they came together, then struggled on the 
edge of the cliff, advancing, retreating, swaying far out over the dizzy height, 
watched by Tcul-u-cul from above, powerless to aid. Suddenly Wi-ma-wi-ta 
slipped bn the mossy rock, and Tsileu, exerting all his strength, raised and 
hurled him far out into the lake. Then the Llaos arose in their wrath, tore 
Tsileu 's body in pieces and cast them on the lake. As they disappeared the 
waters parted and lava burst out with a mighty noise. The island of Llao 
Nous* arose as the gasp of a dying crater, and here it is said dwells the spirit 
of Wi-ma-wi-ta, the brave, and Tcul-u-cul, the lark. 

MARK BRICKEL.L. KERR m Pacific Monthly. 

'Wizard Island. 

The State of Idaho may well be proud of her showing at the St. Louis Exposition, 
having carried off the grand prize in the agriculture exhibit, and Giecond prize for her 
state building. The latter was designed by J. Flood Walker, the Boise architect, and is 
being copied all over the United States. 

The Densmore Typewriter has been represented in Portland for the last ten years, 
the lart four years by Mr. J. E. Huxley, now located at No. 82 Fourth street. Three years 
ago the Densmore Company put the new model on the market, which contains, among other 
valuable improvements, a back spacer, a simple little attachment, yet one that saves the 
operator more time and labor than any other one feature ever put on a writing machine. 
The Densmore is noted for its lightness of touch and great speed, which is accounted for 
in part by the fact that it is a full ball-bearing machine, and is the only typewriter con- 
taining ball-bearing typebars. The "Densmore Doesmore'' is the company's slogan, and 
this truism is attested by the many friends and users of the Densmore in this vicinity. 








Narcissa Prentiss Whitman 


HE subject of this sketch was born in Plattsburg, N. Y., March 
14, 1808. Her parents were Presbyterians. They trained their 
ten children with a strictness of discipline which accorded with the 
extreme orthodoxy of that time, but which is unknown in this day. 
Her father, Judp:e Prentiss, was a fine singer, and instructed his 
children in this accomplishment. Narcissa being the eldest, was the object 
of special training, and developed a voice of great compass and sweetness. 
She was also skilled in housewifely arts. At the age of 10 she was con- 
verted; at 11 years she was received into membership in the church, and 
ever after remained faithful to her church vows. 

Early in life Narcissa read the history of Harriette Boardman, a mis- 
sionary to India. Through this book she was inspired to become a missionary. 
Dr. Whitman also i)Ossesse(l the missionary spirit, and when the Indians of 
the West made a call for the ** White Man's Hook of Heaven*' and for teach- 
ers, he was aimmg the first to respond. Miss Prentiss had been mentioned 
to him as a suitable life comi)anion, and he sought to cultivate her acquaint- 
ance. Upon his first visit to the home of Judge Prentiss she was absent, and 
he was much attracted toward her sister Jane. Later, however, he met 
Narcissa in a neighboring town, where she was taking part in a revival 
meeting. A mutual attachment was formed, which led to an engagement 
between them; but before their marriage day arrived, the wife of a man who 
was to accompany them to their distant field of labor died, and as it was not 
thought best for one woman alone to go to that unknown country, the wedding 
was postponed, and it was decided that Dr. Whitman should go in company 
with Dr. Samuel Parker on an exploring trip. Accordingly they started in 
the spring of 1835, and proceeded in company as far as Green river, the 
rendezvous of the American Fur Company. At this point they met the prin- 
cipal tribes of natives. Here it was decided that Dr. Whitman should return 
East to secure other helpers, and come out the following season. Dr. Parker 
was to go on to Oregon, and return to the East by way of the Sandwich 
Islands. Two Nez Perce chiefs each entrusted a son to Dr. Whitman as 
surety of his return. 

Arriving at home late Saturday night. Dr. Whitman surprised the con- 
gregation the next morning when. he walked into the church accompanied 
by his Indian boys. His old mother was so much startled at his appearance 
that she called right out in meeting, **Why, there's Marcus. '* Every one 
supposed him to be thousands of miles away. 

In February, 1836, Dr. Whitman and Miss Prentiss were married. She 
was a refined, educated woman, and one of deep piety, who could enter fully 


into the sentiments and sympathies of her husband. With a devotion and 
courage never excelled, she journeyed with him to his distant field of labor. 
Dr. Whitman found a suitable location on the banks of the Walla Walla 
river, named by the Indians Wie-lat-pu, or Wail-lat-pu, where he erected his 
cabin. Early in November, 1836, Mrs. Whitman took possession of her new 
home. She was much pleased to find so comfortable a place, though but a 
log cabin. Now began her missionary life with its peculiar hardships. One 
trial was the absence of those of her own sex. She was thousands of miles 
from her friends and kindred, hearing from them at intervals of two and 
three years, living upon meager diet, even to the flesh of horses, and sur- 
rounded continually by natives. To comprehend her isolation is impossible. 

March 14, 1837 (her birthday) little Alice came to them. Maternal 
anguish was not soothed by the presence of a loving mother- or kind friends 
of her own race. Her husband and an Indian woman performed the neces- 
sary service. The Indians cordially welcomed the new baby, and called it 
** Little White Cayuse." Much land was promised little Alice. For a 
little more than two years she was the light and joy of her parents. Then 
the cruel waters claimed her, and left their home desolate. Going alone to the 
stream near by, she fell in, and when her body was recovered life was gone. 
The loss of her own little one opened the mother's heart to all children. No 
child appealed to her in vain. Her home was theirs so long as its shelter 
was needed. 

In the fall of '42 Dr. Whitman decided to attempt a winter trip across 
the mountains, Washington and Boston being the objective points. When 
he took leave of his wife she felt that it was a last adieu. Desolate as was 
her home, she bravely determined to remain at her post. However, her 
friends at the Hudson's Bay Company fort sent for her and insisted upon 
her quitting the mission during the doctor's absence. With reluctance she 
consented. Owing to her failing health she went to Fort Vancouver for 
medical treatment. Later she spent some time visiting among the women 
of the Methodist mission. It finally became necessary for her to go back to 
her own mission for a time. 

When Dr. Whitman returned, after a year's absence, he found his wife 
at The Dalles, very ill, and for months afterward her recovery was almost 
despaired of. At this time she had in charge three half-breed children, and 
her husband brought a nephew with him, aged 13. 

In the fall of '44 a family of seven children, whose parents had died on 
the plains, were brought to her. Her heart opened to the little orphans. A 
home for the winter was all that was asked, but they were all adopted. 
Added to this family of eleven children were others from surrounding mis- 
sions who were sent there to attend school. 

The year of '47 the emigrants brought the measles into the country, and 
the disease soon spread among the Indians. Owing to their method of treat- 
ment it proved fatal in many cases. This, with other causes, made the In- 
dians restless, and they began to murmur against their teachers. The storm 


of their wrath broke in fury on the 29th of November, when Dr. and Mrs. 
Whitman and many others fell victims to their fiendish hands. 

Thus ended the life work of Narcissa Prentiss Whitman. 

Mrs. Whitman's Diary 

Extracts from a copy of the original journal kept by Mrff. Whitman on her trip across 
the plains in 1836.. Preserved by her niece, Miss Oornelia Jackson, of Oberlin, Ohio. 

August 1. Dearest Mother: We commenced our journey to Walla 
Walla July 18, 1836, under the protection of Mr. McLeod. The Flathead 
and Nez Perce Indians and some lodges of the Snake tribe accompany us to 
Fort Hall. Have traveled two months. Have lived on fresh meat for two 
months exclusively. Our ride to-day has been so fatiguing. Felt a calm 
and peaceful state of mind all day. In the morning had a season of prayer 
for my dear parents. We have plenty of dry bufifalo meat. I can scarcely 
eat it, it appears so filthy, but it will keep us alive, and we ought to be 
thankful. Do not think I regret coming. No, far from it. I would not 
go back for the world; am contented and happy. Feel to pity the poor 
Indian women. Am making some progress in their language ; long to be able 
to converse with them about the Savior. 

August 3. Came to Fort Hall this morning. Was much cheered with a 
view of the fort. Anything that looks like a house makes us glad. Were 
hospitably entertained by Captain King, who keeps the fort. It was built 
by Captain Wyeth from Boston, whom we saw at the Rendezvous, on his way 
to the East. Our dinner consisted of dry buffalo meat, turnips and fried 
bread, which was a luxury. Mountain bread is simply coarse flour mixed 
with water and fried or roasted in buflFalo grease. To one who has had noth- 
ing but meat for a long time, this relishes very well. 

August 4. Enjoyed the cool retreat of an upper room this morning while 
writing. Was there ever a journey like this? performed when the sustain- 
ing hand of God has been so manifest every moment. Surely the children of 
Israel could not have been more sensible of the ** Pillar of cloud by day and 
the pillar of fire by night'' than we have been of that hand that has led us 
thus safely on. 

August 12. Came to salmon fishing; obtained some fish and boiled for 
breakfast; find it good eating. They are preparing to cross Snake river. 
I can cross the most difficult streams without the least fear. There is one 
manner of crossing husband has tried, but I have not. Take an elk skin and 
stretch is over you, spreading yourself out as much as possible, then let the 
Indian women carefully put you in the water and with a cord in the mouth 
they will swim and drag you over. 

August 19. Arrived at Snake fort about noon. Left wagon at this fort. 


August 29. We are now on the west side of the Blue mountains. Crossed 
them in a day and a half. Dearest mother, let me tell you how I am sus- 
tained of the Lord in all this journey. For two or three days past I have 
been weak and restless and scarcely able to sit on my horse, but I have been 
diverted by the scenery and carried out of myself. This morning my feelings 
were a little peculiar. I felt remarkably well and strong; so much so as to 
mention it, but could not see any reason why I should be any more rested 
than on the morning previous. When I began to see what a day's ride was 
before us I understood it. If I had had no better health to-day than yester- 
day, I should have fainted under it. Then the promise appeared in tuU view, 
**As the day is so shall thy strength be," and my soul rejoiced in the Lord and 
testified to the truth of another evidently manifest, **Lo, I am with you 
always. " 

September 1. Arrived at Fort Walla Walla. You may better imagine 
our feelings this morning than I can describe them. When it was announced 
we were near, Mr. McLeod, Mr. Pambrun, the gentleman of the house, and 
Mr. Townsend sallied forth to meet us. After the usual introduction, we 
entered the fort. 

They were just eating breakfast when we rode up, and soon we were 
at the table, treated to fresh salmon, potatoes, tea, bread and butter. After 
breakfast we were shown the novelties. We were shown to the room Mr. 
Pambrun had prepared for us, on hearing of our approach. It was the west 
bastion in the fort, full of port holes in the sides, but no windows, and was 
filled with firearms. A large cannon, always loaded, stood behind the door 
by one of the holes. These things did not move me. 

At 4 we were called to dinner. It consisted of pork, potatoes, beets, cab- 
bage, turnips, tea, bread and butter. I am thus particular in my description 
of eatables, so that you may be assured we find something to eat beyond the 
Rocky moimtains. I have not introduced you to the lady of the house. She 
is a native born from a tribe east of the mountains. She* appears well ; does 
not speak English, but her native tongue and French. Mr. Pambrun is from 
Canada; is very agreeable and much of gentleman in appearance. About 
noon Mr. and Mrs. Spalding arrived with their company. 

September 7. We set sail from Walla Walla to Vancouver yesterday. 
Our boat is an open one, manned with six oarsmen and the steersman. I 
enjoy it much. The Columbia is beautiful. 

September 12. We are now in Vancouver, the New York of the Pacific 
Coast. Before we reached the house of the chief factor, Dr. McLoughlin, 
were met by several gentlemen who came to give us welcome. Mr. Douglas, 
Dr. Tolraie and Dr. McLoughlin of the Hudson's Bay Company, who invited us 
in and seated us on the sofa. Soon after we were introduced to Mrs. Mc- 
Loughlin and Mrs. Douglas, both natives of the country (half-breeds). We 
were invited to walk in the garden. Here we found fruit of every description. 
I must mention the origin of the apples and grapes. A gentleman twelve 


years ago, while at a party in London, put the seeds of the apples and grapes 
he ate into his vest pocket, and soon after took a voyage to this country and 
left them here. Now they are greatly multiplied. Returning from the 
garden we were met by Mrs. Copendel, a lady from England, and Miss 
Maria, daughter of Dr. McLonghlin, quite an interesting yonng lady. 

September 13. This morning visited the school to hear the children sing. 
It consists of about fifty scholars, children who have French fathers and In- 
dian mothers, and many orphans. No person could have received a more 
hearty welcome or be treated with greater kindness than we have since our 

September 22. Dr. McLoughlin has put his daughter in my care, and 
wishes me to hear her recitations. I sing with the children also, which is 
considered a favor. We are invited to ride as often as once a week. To-day 
Mrs. McLoughlin rode with ns. She prefers the old habit of riding gentleman 
fashion. I sing about an hour every evening with the children, teaching 
them new tunes, at the request of Dr. McLoughlin. Mrs. McLoughlin has a 
fine ear for music, and is greatly delighted. She is one of the kindest women 
in the world. Speaks a little French, but mostly loves her native language. 
She wishes to go and live with me; her daughter and Mrs. Douglas also. 
The Lord reward them for their love and kindness to us. The doctor urges 
me to stay all winter. He is a very sympathetic man ; is afraid we will suffer. 
Husband is so filled with business that he writes l)ut little. He is far away 
now, poor darling, three hundred miles. 

I intended to have written this so plainly that father and mother could 
read it. Adieu, 


The Columbia Maternal Association was organized September 3, 1838, 
at Dr. Whitman's. The prc'imble reads: ** Sensible of the evils that beset 
the young mind in a heathen land, and confident that no arm but God's can 
secure our children or those committed to our care from the dangers that 
surround them and bring them early into the fold of Christ and fit them for 
usefulness here and glory hereafter, we, the subscribers, agree to form our- 
selves into an association for the purpose of adopting such rules as are best 
calculated to assist us in the right performance of our maternal duties.'' 
The last Wednesday in the month was observed as a season of prayer for their 
children. Mrs. Eells was chosen president of this first organized body of 
women on the Pacific Slope. 

At the time of the Whitman massacre an Indian, who held one of the 
captive women as his wife, was careful to have morning and evening prayers, 
and to read a portion of Scripture. 

Mrs. Whitman 's last words, * ' Tell mother that I died at my post. ' ' 


The Lewis and Clark Exposition 

I HE Lewis and Clark Expositioii originated about three years ago 
with the Oregon Historical Society. The purpose is to eom- 
memorate the one hundredth anniversary of the expedition of 
Captain Meriwether Lewis and Captain "Williani Clark. The ob- 
ject in celebrating this historical event at this time is to demon- 
strate to the commercial world and to the citizens of the United States the 
great possibilities of this Western cotmtry. 

The citizens of Oregon subscribed most liberally to meet the expenses 
of this Exposition, and the state appropriated one of the largest sums ever 
granted by any state for a similar purpose, according to its wealth and 
population. The general government made an appropriation next in pro- 
portion to the World's Fair at Chicago and the St, Louis Exposition, its sole 
purpose being to demonstrate to the world the importance of this great 
Western country and the commercial possibilities across the Pacific Oci>an. 

The State of Oregon is possessed of a large 
amount of undeveloped resources and a vast area 
of government land which is open to settlement un- 
der the homestead law. In addition to the Expo- 
sition the scenic beauty of this country will present 
a wonderful panorama to the visitors. The Pacific 
Coast is the Switzerland of America, with streams 
of clear, sparkling water, its snow-capped mountains 
and its magnificent forests. A country full of beau- 
tiful wild flowers and sweet song birds. 

There lis an opportunity in this country for the 
miner; for the agriculturist in every department: for 
the horticulturist; for the livestock producer; for 
the deep sea fisher and for the fisherman who would jefferson myers 
find the wealth that abounds in the Columbia River, the Royal Chinook. 

The Lewis and Clark Exposition will cover an area of about four hun- 
dred acres, in the center of which there is a natural lake. The cost of this 
Exposition is estimated at about .$5,000,000. It will be participated in by 
nearly every foreign government of importance, by the government of the 
United States, and nearly every state and territory within the I'nion, and 
in addition a great number of large private exhibits by manufacturers and 
other individual interests. 

It is the purpose of the management to secure at the close of the Ex- 
position a very large collection of these exhibits for a comjnercial museum 


within the City of Portland, in order that information may be obtained there- 
after in reference to all the states and countries that exhibit. 

It is desired that all visitors to our Exposition feel free to request any 
information or attention that the citizens of the Northwest may be able to 
give. True Western hospitality, such as prevailed among the pioneers who 
crossed the plains many years ago, will be cordially extended to all our 
guestt* at this the crowning event in the national life of this land of Lewis 
and Clark, "Where Rolls the Oregon." 


Type of the sturdy, invincible West, 
Lifting her head with the bravest and best, 
Grows the wild holly — our Oregon queen — 
Shining in raiment of gold and. of green. 

Brightly she blossoms and crOMTis our fair hills. 
Bearing her beauty wherever God wills. 
Emblem of statehood — her flowers unfold. 
Loyal forever in green and in gold, 

— Eunice W. Luckey 


Roman Catholic Women of the Northwe^ 


ROM early pioneer days in the Northwest, the women of the Roman 
Catholic Church have taken an active part in the care of the sicfe 
and in assisting the^ needy. In a particular manner do the re- 
ligious orders of Catholic women claim the esteem and affection 
of the people of the far West; for these women of self-sacrificing 
lives have done more than any others in the unwearied tending of the sick, 
in the care of the orphan, and the Christian education of youth.. 

The first nuns to make the perilous journey to the Northwest were the 
Sisters of Notre Dame, from Prance. These nuns came to Oregon at a very 
early date, and remained for some time at St. Paul, where they labored for 
the civilization of the Indians. 

The distinction of being the founders of the first organized body of 
Christian workers in the **Land of Lewis and Clark" belongs to the Sisters 
of Charity of Providence, who came to Washington from Montreal in 1856, 
landing at Vancouver December 8. This order is devoted to charity and 
education. Thus the work of the women of the Roman Catholic Church 
began amidst great privations. Very vew whites peopled the territory at 
that time. 

A boarding school and two orphanagejs, one for girls, the other for boys, 
were established. In these institutions, with comparatively little aid, the 
nuns have nurtured and educated hundreds of unfortunate children. 

The next order that came to the rugged West was that of the Sisters of 
the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary. They, too, came from Montreal, by the 
way of Cape Horn in 1859. 

These Sisters have the credit of being the first congregation of women 
to establish a permanent work in the cause of education in Oregon. 

Although dedicated to this cause, this band of women hesitated not to 
do all the work their hands found to do. In the absence of others to do it, 
they looked after the sick and needy poor^ often watching all night by the 
bedside of some sufl'erer, cheerfully ministering to her wants, and yet filling 
their places in the school room without an hour's intervening repose. 

Large and efficient societies organized for philanthropic work are con- 
ducted by the lay women of the church, through which much suflFering is al- 
leviated and the wants of the needy ministered to without regard to creed or 


Reminiscences of a Trip Across the Plains in '45 


Y FATHER, Lawrence Hall, was elected captain of our train, and 
we started on our way with thirty wagons and about fifty men. 

A wedding occurred in our company. The bride's cake was 
made with turtle eggs found in the creek. The event was cele- 
brated by a dance on the grass under the stars. 

Near Ft. Boise the Indians made an attempt to attack our train and 
stampede the stock, but failed through the prompt action of my father, 
who ordered the teams unhitched and the wagons formed in a circle with the 
tongues of each run under the wagon just forward, making a strong barricade. 
The oxen were put inside, each driver standing by his own team. The women 
and children were also inside by the wagons. All the available men were 
outside standing with guns drawn. The captain walked out alone toward 
the Indians with his gun in one hand and a white flag in the other. He 
motioned the Indians not to come any nearer or his men would fire upon them. 
The Indians turned and ran away as fast as their horses could go. They had 
fine horses. The men were nude and painted. 

Our most serious troubles began when we took the Stephen Meek cut- 
off. He represented that this route was nuich shorter than the other, and 
that there was no danger from the Indians, as this way did not lead through 
the Snake River Indians' territory. By vote it was decided to follow Mr. 
Meek. A contract was signed to pay him for his services, and he agreed 
to pilot the company safely through in thirty days, or, as was written in his 
own words, give his head for a football. All were to take turns hauling his 
goods. He and his wife were on horseback. 

One day, after three weeks' travel on our new route, our guide suddenly 
and excitedly exclaimed, **My God, we are lost.'' Alarmed, but not dis- 
mayed, we moved on till night. There was neither grass nor water to be 
found. All night the men sat by the dim camp fires listening for reports from 
those who had gone in search of water. If any was found a signal of three 
shots was to be fired in quick succession; if not three shots at intervals. At 
sunrise no sound had been heard. The train was soon moving on through 
sage brush and across dry creek beds which mocked our thirst. So we 
journeyed till noon, when hark ! a shot, but not the three in quick succession, 
but at intervals; like a death knell they sounded. The men stood in groups 
talking over the situation, the mothers, pale and haggard, sat in the wagons 
with their little ones around them. With a determination that knows not 
defeat the party moved on. About night in quick succession shots were 
heard, which proclaimed that water had been found. All pushed forward 
with renewed energy. When in sight of the water the thirsty oxen broke 


into a run and rushed into the water and drank until they had to be driven 

**We are saved, we are saved! Thank Gk)d!" cried Stephen Meek, 
'*for now I know the way." He could locate the trail to The Dalles from 
this stream. Men, women and children were laughing and crying in turn. 

The teams were in such a bad condition that we had to lay by here three 
weeks. Many were sick and some died and were laid to rest in this camp. 
Mr. Meek would certainly have given his head for a football, had not he and 
his M'ife . made their timely escape. When we reached the Deschutes the 
Indians there made us understand that a man and woman liad crossed the 
river a short time before. The man swam the river, leading his horse, and 
an Indian swam over with the woman on his back. Other Indians tied her 
clothes on their heads and swam across. We did not hear of the Meeks for 
more than a year after this. 

We were lost in the mountains six weeks. The way was rough beyond 
description. The women and children walked most of the way. 

On reaching The Dalles Meek told the missionaries there that a party 
of emigrants were in the mountains. A white man and two Indians were at 
once sent in search of our company. When found we people were on the 
Yerge of starvation. But for the provisions brought by the scouts many, 
if not all, would have perished, as it took a week more to reach The Dalles 
when guided by these men. 

A Brave Life and a Useful One 


The announcement of the death of Martha Morrison, wife of Hon. John 
Minto, will be heard with regret by those who have known, loved and hon- 
ored her from the early settlement of Oregon down to the present time. 

Martha Morrison came to the Pacific Coast with her parents in 1844, 
by the slow and primitive means of conveyance in those times. She was then 
a girl of but 13 years, and three years later became the wife of John Minto, 
from whom, after fifty-seven years of happy and helpful wifehood, she has 
now been separated by death. An exemplary housewife, a wise and kind 
mother, a helpful neighbor, a sympathetic friend, she left no duty unfulfilled. 

Martha Morrison represented an intelligent, capable womanhood in its 
truest, because its most helpful and tenderest sense is honored by such life. 
In circles which for many years she has stood for the typical pioneer woman — 
fearless, cheerful, capable, willing, resourceful — she will be greatly missed. 
As for the rest, it may be told in the words of the wise man: **Her children 
rise up and call her blessed; her husband also, and he praiseth her." 


The Story of Wannetta 


NE September morning in 1844, the sturdy figure of a young Eng- 
lishman might have been seen swinging along over the dim trail 
blazed out by Dr. Marcus Whitman and his devoted band of 
pathfinders. His bronzed face, untrimmed hair and beard, and 
travel-worn apparel, showing the ravages of time and weather, 
proved him a successful follower of far-seeing, loyal Whitman ; and his strong^ 
manly face, clear, honest eyes and cheery whistle, all testified to the pluck and 
enterprise that alone achieved the impossible. A powder horn hung on one 
side and a bullet pouch made of untanned fawn skin hung on the other. He 
carried a gun of modern English manufacture over his shoulder and a knife 
thrust into a rude sheath hung at his belt. As the sun drew near the meridian 
he stox)ped, looked from the sun, high in the heavens, back over the trail he 
had come, as if to calculate the length of nooning he might indulge in. His 
conclusions seemed to be satisfactory, for he stood his gun against a tree 
and threw himself on the green sward beside it, deep in the shadow of a 
cluster of trees. He was hungry, but a tempting dinner hung alluringly 
from some bushes, bending with their weight of luscious fruit, and the trickling 
of a little mountain stream told him he might drink like a lord. 

It was one of those hazy days, late in summer, when the mountains and 
the woods seem so far, far away; when the marvelous mirage enchants the 
vision and the very clouds mischievously enlist in the ranks of the unreal 
and reality is a myth. The young Englishman, John Minto, who possessed 
a poetic soul, yielded to the fascinations of the day and lost himself in dreams 
of his own conjuring. 

Prominent in these dreams figured the owner of a pair of soft brown 
eyes that had looked so saucily into his that very morning as he begged her to 
be serious just once, and answer truly before he left her. Evidently the 
look in the bright face belied the **no" the lips had spoken, for the lover's 
dreams seemed pleasant ones. 

Suddenly the sound of approaching horses aroused the young man, and 
he sprang to his feet and caught up his gun just as the lithe figure of a 
mounted Indian swept into view followed by a loose pony. Minto admired 
the fearless grace of the rider and the beauty of his mount, Vhile he pre- 
pared to receive friend or foe, whichever came. On came the rider with 
immobile face and averted eyes, as if utterly unconscious of the white man's 
presence; but, just as he came opposite Minto, he swung off his horse without 
checking his pace, and saluted. Minto returned the salutation and motioned 
to the newcomer to be seated. The Indian gravely declined the courtesy 
and went down to the bank of the stream. Stationing himself in position to 


command all approach, he laid down his gun. ' Plunging his slender brown 
hands into the water he washed his face vigorously and wiped it on the corner 
of a gayly-colored blanket. He then took out a small comb and tiny mirror, 
such as the Hudson's Bay Company were finding in great demand in their 
traffic among the Indians, and proceeded to complete a toilet worthy of Beau 
Brummel, much to the amusement of Minto. The latter was surprised to find 
such indications of refinement in an Indian. His surprise rapidly developed 
into admiration when the young brave came into view again. 

The Indian was a magnificent specimen of the Nez Perces — tall, straight 
and fair of face. He wore leggings, moccasins and a sort of shirt or tunic 
of the same shade of soft buckskin, heavily beaded in bright colors. From 
a beaded belt, which was a piece of real art, hung a sheathed knife, and he 
carried a gun which, when he rode, rested on the pony in front of him. A 
gay blanket, hung over one shoulder, completed this picturesque dress. 
That these physical graces were supplemented by fine qualities was evident 
in the expression of an intellectual face and an unconscious dignity of bear- 
ing, and Minto gave involuntary homage to this specimen of Nature's noble- 
men by rising as he approached. He had picked up some English by asso- 
ciation with the fur traders and missionaries, and they could converse enough 
to understand each other. It came about that they both were en route to the 
Nez Perces encampment, where Minto expected to be joined by Daniel Clarke 
before proceeding on to the Willamette Valley. 

Minto offered his gun for the trail pony. The offer was declined, but 
he was invited to ride it while they traveled together, a courtesy gladly 
accepted. They ate heartily of a dinner furnished by the Indian, of dried 
fish, kouse, or camas bread, a kind of cake made of sweet anise root, sup- 
plemented by a dessert drawn from Nature's bountiful resources about them, 
and they washed it down with copious draughts of the ale of primitive 
Adam. They resumed their journey early in the afternoon and reached the 
camp while the sun was stiU high. Here the Indian stopped and Minto dis- 
mounted, acknowledging his thanks for courtesies received. His companion 
bowed gravely and disappeared into a tepee. Minto threw himself on the 
grass to await Clarke's coming before proceeding on his journey. As he 
lay there, watching these grave, silent people, an Indian girl emerged from 
the tepee which his erstwhile friend had entered and offered him some ripe 
blue berries in a curiously woven basket. The striking beauty. of the girl 
filled him with admiring wonder. He had seen pretty Indian girls, as Indians 
go, but this rare beauty of face and figure was enhanced by a sweet modesty 
that seemed out of harmony with her surroundings. Minto felt that he had 
found the Juliet that prompted the young Romeo's unusual adorning. 'Twas 
but the familiar story so old, yet ever new. Minto awaited the girl's return 
for the basket, wondering how he should express his appreciation of this un- 
ostentatious hospitality extended through so charming a messenger. Her 
bearing forbade the offer of the usual barter, but a happy thought prompted 
him to lay some fine new trout hooks in the basket, and a flash of pleased 


acknowledgement in the eye of this fair young Hagar more than repaid him. 
That she was a bondwoman, a captive enslaved, he knew by those unmistak- 
able signs so easily read by the initiated. 

This tribe had not escaped from the ravages of the dreadful **Coldsticks,'' 
a disease that had greatly reduced the tribes of Oregon, not only in numbers, 
but in aggressive virility. It had consequently proved a potent ally to the 
Americans who had come to share their country with them, and who were 
rapidly taking the lion's share. Mourning for the dead and dying was 
heard on every side. No need of hired mourners here, for all were bereaved 
alike. Minto's companion of the morning, the chief's son and heir, had been 
summoned home because the old chief himself had at last succumbed to this 
fatal malady. All the great keel-al-lys had been banished amid the curses 
of their people, for neither their medicines nor their weird machinations 
could ease the sufferings of the great father, and he was only waiting for the 
coming of his son before going to the great **Sah-la-tyee.'' The old chief 
lay on a bed of skin in his capacious lodge. He might have been thought an 
old Roman hero dying in the midst of his camp. Not only was the resem- 
blance in the barbaric grandeur of his surroundings, but in the jfigure and 
visage of this old warrior. The cast of the features would have been Roman 
had they not been Indian. There was a massive grandeur that bespake 
strength, leadership and greatness of soul. The stalwart figure lay motion- 
less while the longing eyes were turned toward the entrance. His look 
brightened as his son entered with bowed head. The attendant squaws 
retired, leaving the two together with no other presence than the slim figure 
of an Indian boy, who sat in the comer of the lodge, his great dark eyes 
fixed in unutterable sadness on the dying chief. It was not all grief at 
the loss of his master that brought that look of despair on the young face. 
The boy knew that, if his master died, he, as his favorite slave, must go with 
him to attend him in his spirit world. The old chief talked in broken uneven 
tones to his son upon whom was to fall the mantle of his authority, while 
the young prince sat, his head dropped upon his knees, his proud dignity 
all gone. The tones gre%v weaker and soon ceased, but the mourner sat there, 
the personification of manly grief. At sundown a wail from the squaws out- 
side the lodge announced to the Indians that their chief was dead. The low 
chanting wail was taken up and sped on and on until it encircled the entire 
camp. A slight girlish figure darted from one of the huts and crouched 
against the wall of the chief's lodge, where sat the silent figure of the slave 
boy. Softly the girl called, **Talax, are you there f **Yes, my sister." 
**Are you afraid?" **No. Talax is the son of a brave warrior and chief of 
a mighty people; I want to live to take my sister back to our father's lodge, 
and 'tis hard to die bound and a captive." Sobs betrayed the presence of 
the listener, but no one molested her. When she could speak again she asked : 
'Ms Swift Eagle there?" **Yes, my sister." The girl rose slowly and 
stole steadily into the lodge and threw herself in the utter abandon of grief 
at the feet of the silent mourner. He longed to raise the prostrate figure. 


for he was a man^ and he loTed the beautiful ^1. But Indian etiquette for- 
bade such a demonstration of sentiment, and with rare masterfulness he sat 
as immobile as a bronze god while the sobbing girl poured out an eloquent 
plea for the life of her brother. **0 save my brother! Save him for me! 
Take another and save him!" 

**I cannot, Wannetta/' came in low, decisive tones; **I cannot. Quapama 
needs Talax. The old chief must have a brave, loving attendant in the land of 
Sah-la-tyee. He asked for Talax and I cannot keep him. The Great Sah-la- 
tyee will take care of him." 

Crushed by failure of the attempt to save her brother, Waiinetta drew her 
abundant hair over her face that others might not see her swollen eyes and 
returned to her place outside of the wall of skins. The wailing continued 
through the night, rising sometimes to the shrill tones of the beasts of the 
forests bereft of their mates. The weird tones of these wild people were like 
the voices of Nature blended in human cadences. At sunrise canoes were 
moored to the nearest bank of the river, and the body of the dead chieftain, 
robecj in beautiful furs, was carried tenderly by strong men and laid in his 
own canoe. With it were placed all his personal belongings, a quantity of 
food, and finally, the Indian boy. Over all was spread the glossy black 
skin of his favorite horse, which a bullet had sent to the spirit world when 
his master's life went out. The other canoes were manned by stalwart braves, 
and this unique funeral barge was towed down the river to Memaloose Island, 
where the dead chief was gathered to his fathers. The unhappy captive, 
securely bound, was placed beside the bier and left to starve that he might 
still attend his captor whom he had served so faithfully. 

When the young chief returned to the camp he saw a girlish figure lying 
prostrate on the turf in swoon-like abandonment. He must remember his 
dignity as chief now, and smothering the promptings of the lover, he entered 
his lodge with stately tread and seated himself on a sort of rude throne 
to receive the homage of his people. At night, when the encampment was 
wrapped in silence except for the moans of the sick and the movements of 
the attendant squaws, a slight figure stole to the river bank, loosened a canoe, 
and with muffled oars rowed toward the island of the dead. Wannetta was 
skilled in handling a boat, but knowing the long, long journey before her, 
she carefully conserved her strength. As she approached the island her heart 
sank at the uncanny stillness of this awesome place. She stole like a specter 
through the shadows until she reached the house of the dead, where she called 
softly, ** Talax, are you there?" '*Yes, ray sister." ThUs reassured, the 
girl crept in and clasped her brother in loving arms. The brave boy, who 
could face an awful doom with stoic composure, was unnerved by loving sym- 
pathy' and sobbed aloud. **Here, let me cut these thongs. Can you stand f 
Now here is food and drink," and she laid before him camas bread and dried 
venison and a skin containing water. As the half famished boy devoured 
the food she told him she was going to plead again with Swift Eagle, and 
if he refused to save the boy she would do it alone. **He loves me, he will 


do it. Be brave! My brother shall not die." Then she flitted away to re- 
sume the doubly tiresome jonmey back up the river. 

Swift Eagle noticed with pleasure that the girl was less sad. She even 
smiled, when he passed her and he ventured to approach her, as she sat apart, 
and plead his love. She listened with a far away look in her soft, dreamy 
eyes, and answered: "Swift Eagle is a mighty chief; he is strong qpd proud. 
Wannetta is but a captive maid like a snared bird, bnt she loves the noble 
Swift Eagle with a great love. She will be his wife if he will grant one 
thinp." "Swift Eagle is strong to protect his little Wannetta and proud to 
do what she wills." " 'Tis the promise of a mighty chief, and the heart of 
Wannetta is very glad. Let my brother go to our father's lodge and where 
Swift Eagle goes, Wannetta will go and will serve him as long as she lives." 

The face of the young chieftian did not show displeasure, but a grave 
wonder. "But I cannot bring back the dead." Then she told him all that 
she had done with sueb winning grace that Swift Eagle could not find it in 
his heart to reprove her, for he was but a man with a loving heart. 

Quietly, at dead of night, with the gentle Wannetta by his side, Swift 
Eagle rowed to Memaloose. Together they wended their way to the tomb, 
and there foimd Talax awake and alert, for his trained ear had detected 
the stealthy approach of footsteps. As silently they rowed back to shore 
where they had left a full equipment for the long and dangerous journey the 
boy must prepare to take. Talax clasped his sister in a long, last embrace, 
then, putting her band in that of the young chief, he took his gun and dis- 
appeared in the shadows of the woods. Wannetta watched him as long as 
she could discern his flgure in the darkness, then turned and followed her 
lover, though her homesick heart was with the youthful brave speeding to- 
ward the lodge of their chieftain father. 




Moriah Maldon Grain 

OWN in the heart of Old Eentuekj', the Dark and Bloody Ground of history, 
suene of the exploits of the immortal Daniel Boone, was born, November 13, 
1814, the brown*ejed, bTown-bnired maiden whose name beads this idietch, 
and who became the wife of Eav. Clinton Kelly. Her father, John Grain, 
came of an ancient English house that traces its lineage back through Charle- 
magne, some hundreds of years prior to the Christian era; Sarah Rousseau, 
her mother, descended from Hilare Bousaeau, a Huguenot, who, upon the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes, sought refuge in America from the persecutions of a bigoted monarchy. 
John Grain want from Virginia to the wilds of Kentucky in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century, and settled in Pulaski County, and there, with the help of his negro 
slaves, cleared a space in the) forest and made for himself and family a comfortable home. 
Moriab, the seventh child, dearly loved her native woods and streams; and, growing 
up in the pure, free air of the forest, drinking its balm and listening to its many voices, 
she rounded into a sturdy little woman, of fine, sensitive nature, timid almost to shyness. 
Being the youngest, ahe was shielded from much that we should call hardship, the negro 
women declaring that " Misa M'riah" must not "go fer to spile her hands" with such 
work as they deemed drudgery, fit only for themselves. Simon Peter, an elfish little black 
boy, was Moriah 's special property, and well might he look to his ways, for his young 
mistress would tolerate do habits of trifling. 

But there were no drones in the Grain household. The young woman of that day 
mnst have a well-wrought samplar of her own handiwork, and know all the intermediate 
steps of needle work, to the cutting and making of coats and the queer, apron-front " pan- 
taloons " worn by her father and brothers. Spinning, weaving and knitting were in the 
course of lessons to be mastered under the watchful eye of the frugal mother, who well 
knew the value of such a dowry to her daughters. 

Up and down the spinning-room sped Moriah 'b light feet, her ileft fingers drawing 
out the long threads from the spindle, the while a clear young voice sang snatches of 
"Corydon, " "Come, My Beloved, Haste Away," or some other ijuaint melody of the 
time, fragments of which floated off to the kitchen where Aunt Nelly, busy with culinary 
aftaiiB, would stop in her work, and, turning her homely face toward the "house," ejac- 
ulate: "De Lawd bless dat chile!" Many a day saw a pair of warm socka knit by her 
busy fingers that in the morning had been crude wool; and once, on a wager, two pairs were 
the result of one day's work. Perhaps it was "weaving day," for the family, as well as 
the slaves, must be clothed mainly from the Qocks in father Grain's pasture; or garments 
were to be made when sewing machines were unknown, or housework to be done; but there 
were ever the willing hands and the clear singing. 

So passed happy days, filled with useful activities, their healthful quiet varied by 
neighborhood husking-bees, spelling matches, etc., where the young folks had their share 
of fun and frolic. 

But the womanly heart was untouched until thrre raiae a-wooiiig to the home on 
Pitman Creek a stalwart circuit -rider, Clinton Kelly, to whose manly advances there was 
speedy surrender, and Moriab Grain went out from a tenderly nurtured home life to mother 
six motherless children, to bear nine of her own, and to share in nil the toil and privation 
of the life of a Methodist preacher. 

It was a quiet wedding. The bride made a sweet, old-timey picture in her black 
satin gown, with "mutton-leg" sleeves and pointed bodice, trimmed with pipings of black 
silk; the waving chestnut hair in a simple coil at the back of her head; dainty morocco 
slippers peeping from the hem of her robe; the money that would have purchased a new 
11 could be used to advantage in the home to which she was going. 
The cloud of war appeared dimly on the horiEon, and Clinton Kelly prepared to go 


to OregQD. From the day the little company of emigrants turned their faces toward the 
west, in 1848, Moriah Grain never beheld kith nor kin again on earth. John Orain sent 
word from his distant home, * * Don 't take Moriah west of the Bocky Mountains. ' ' But her 
husband's mind wad her mind, and her spirit was like that of Ruth of old, ''Where thou 
diest I will die, and there will I be buried." 

The wearisome journey over the plains came to an end. It was as if the world 
she had known and loved had closed its doors forever upon her. Loved ones might be 
ilead weeks, even monthsi, before the news could reach the log cabin in the wilderness 
on the banks of the Willamette. Wild animals roamed the woods, the Indians came with 
the freedom of the savage; she fed them, and breathed freer when they went away. 

Immigrants came, too, and found the door always open, the table always spread, 
though simple the fare, served in pioneer style. Many a family bereft of their all were 
taken in, sheltered and fed during the long rainy months of winter, and in the spring 
went on their way rejoicing. 

In the trying days of '56, when the Indians terrorized the whole Northwest, Mrs. 
Kelly's house, from garret to cellar, was crowded with refugees. The little cabin had 
been superseded b}'- an immense log structure in what is now one of the eastern suburbs of 
Portland. It stood on the spot where now stands the handsome residence of the late 
Captain J. W. Kern. 

In memory's hall hangs a goodly picture. It is a wide room, its walls are of round 
logs, with the bark peeled off, the floor is of puncheons; a huge fireplace in the back of the 
room is filled with blazing logs that send columns of flame up the roaring chimney, while 
the storm howls without. The recess on each side of the fireplace is filled by a high 
bed; the high windows are hung with ruffled muslin curtains. In a niche between a bed 
and the chimney is a stack of Kentucky rifles. In one corner of the fireplace sits a 
mother, her fresh young face framed in a halo of silver. The heavy work of the day is 
over, her little children are about her, and the ever-present needle plies in and out. The 
father sits near, and looks musingly into the fire. The wide spaces about the fire are 
filled by the older boys, the hired men and several belated travelers. Some small boys, 
whose mother died on the dreary march over the plains, are playing about the room. 

In all the vicissitudes of frontier life, Moriah Grain bore her part well; there was 
never a word of complaint, and the song-spirit never died. When efhe was glad she sang 
joyfully; if she was sad or lonely, it was not apparent; the song overflowed just the same. 
The late Rev. William Roberts came in through the wide-open doors once as she sang, and 
said: "Sister Kelly, you are always wringing." When a letter came over the wide reaches 
of plain bearing a black seal, telling of the death of her father, she brushed away the fall- 
ing tears and tremulously sang of a meeting beyond. 

One day — the thirty-first of January, eighteen hundred and sixty-three — ^as the sun 
sank to his rest behind the sea, she sang triumphantly: 

**My soul's full of glory, 

Inspiring my tongue; 
Gould I meet with angels, 

I'd sing them a song; 
I'd sing of ray Jesus, 

And tell of His charms. 
And beg them to bear me 

To Hisr loving arms," 

and the music of earth melted into the music of the heavens. 

"Mother" was a fitting title for her who entered with hearty co-operation into 
all the benevolent purposes of her life comrade, known to old and young alike by the en- 
dearing name of "Father Kelly." 

She was one of many noble women who helped to build the Empire of the West, 
and of such Spartan matrons was born its broad civilization. 

Her sons and daughters are: Mrs. Sarah M. Kern, Penumbra Kelly, Mrs. M. Emily 
Shaver, and Dr. Richmond Kelly, well-known residents of Portland; Mrs. Laura F. Turner 
and Mrs. Fredrika B. Judy, of Galifornia. L. F. T. 


Susan B. Anthony's Visit to Oregon 


LIZABETH CADY STANTON and Susan B. Anthony visited San 
Francisco in the summer of 1871, and while the newspapers of 
that city were giving glowing accounts of the lectures and person- 
nel of Mrs. Stanton, coupled with harsh. and cruel criticisms of 
Miss Anthony, I called upon well-known attorneys of Portland, 
and through their assistance secured transportation from Ben Holladay for 
bringing the ladies by steamer to Portland. The steamer arrived in the night 
time, bringing Miss Anthony alone, as Mrs. Stanton was unable to accompany 

Early the next morning I called upon Miss Anthony at the St. Charles 
hotel, where, instead of the ** cranky old maid'* the reporters of that period 
had been caricaturing, I was met by a softly spoken, motherly looking, mod- 
estly attired woman, to whom my heart warmed instantly. After some 
diflSculty I succeeded in engaging the Oro Fino Theater for Miss Anthony's 
three lectures. Her audiences were large and good natured; but the daily 
papers were cold and critical, and but for my New Northwest, which had 
found a place in almost every household, I fear that our distinguished visitor 
would have gone from us with no very exalted opinion of our press or people. 
Her lectures over in Portland, we together visited a number of Willamette 
Valley towns, where our mission was well sustained and encouraged. 

We visited the Oregon State Fair in September, and there being no 
public hall on the grounds for meetings, we spoke in an open space in the 
shade of the pavilion, where we were compelled to raise our voices to a 
screech in order to be heard above the commingled din of brass bands, steam 
whistles and the cries of competing showmen. On this occasion a certain 
military gentleman, a colonel and a bachelor, was espied in the audience whom 
Miss Anthony recognized as one who had characterized her in an article for a 
Kansas newspaper as a * * slab-sided old maid. " The good natured excoriation 
he received before he could get away was exceedingly amusing to everybody 
but himself; and I have never heard of his repeating the offense. 

Returning from the Willamette Valley towns, we proceeded to Walla 
Walla, traveling up the Columbia as the invited guests of the late lamented 
Captain J. C. Ainsworth on one of the old 0. R. & N. Company's palatial 
river steamers to Wallula, where we took stage for Walla Walla, thirty miles 
distant. The dust was a foot deep in many places, and the road abounded 
in hidden chuck-holes. But Miss Anthony rode fearlessly on the boot of a 
lumbering old stage coach, beside an obliging driver, who regaled her with 
the trite story of Horace Greeley's famous ride in Nevada, frequently ex- 


claiming, as he flourished his whip, **Keep your seat, Miss Anthony; I'll get ' ^ 
you there on time.'* 

Annie Pixley, who was then starring in the Pacific Northwest, had pos- 
session of the only hall Walla Walla afforded; and no church being open to 
any woman speaker at any price, we secured a little hall at the rear end of 
a saloon, where we had a fine audience, but were solemnly censured for ac- 
cepting the only place open to us by every preacher who had shut the door 
of his church in our faces. 

Prom Walla Walla we journeyed by river and stage coach to Olympia, 
where we addressed a joint session of the territorial legislature. Miss Anthony 
remarking at the beginning of her speech that, although women had before 
addressed similar assemblies, this was the first time to her knowledge that 
they had done so by official invitation. 

We then went to Seattle, Port Townsend and other Puget Sound hamlets, 
after which we visited Victoria, making many friends for equal rights in 
British Columbia as well as in Oregon and Washington. Our return trip 
by stage from Olympia to Cowlitz Landing was peculiarly trying. The 
November rains had come, the roads were horrible, and the night was pitch 
dark. But the driver was wise, the horses were intelligent and we reached the 
Columbia River without other mishaps than bumps and bruises. From 
Albany, Oregon, Miss Anthony took stage for Sacramento, lecturing often 
en route and everywhere making converts. 

A quarter of a century later she returned to Portland, crowned with 
age and riches and fame. She was the bright particular star at the first 
Oregon congress of women in 1896, and was the honored guest of all sorts of 
public and private functions and organizations of women. Society opened its 
doors to her and her co-workers, and open-handed hospitality greeted them 
at every turn. The stage coach had given way to four transcontinental rail- 
roads, and the Star Spangled Banner was floating over the islands of the sea. 

"The hour of woman's full and complete enfranchisement is not yet 
come," said our distinguished gu^st, **but it is coming. We have but to 
work and wait for it yet a little longer.'' 

Years after the close of the Nez Perce mission the outward forms of 
religion were observed by the Indians. Prayers and singing were heard in 
nearly every lodge. At the council at Walla Walla in 1855 it was found that 
three lodges of the Cayuses and about one thousand of the Nez Perce Indians 
kept up regular family worship. They sang from the Nez Perce hymn book 
and read in their own language the gospel of St. Matthew, prepared for them 
by Mr. Spalding while at Lapwai. They showed surprising endurance of 
piety. Many kept up their knowledge of reading and writing so well indeed 
that they took notes and also made copies of the treaties and the speeches at 
this council at Walla Walla eight years after the close of the mission. In 
1843, under Dr. White, these Indians organized a simple form of government, 
elected chiefs and adopted a few laws. 



Life of Mrs. W. H. Gray 

a Missionary to the Oregon Country in 1838. 

ARY AUGUSTA DTX was born at Ballston Springs, New York, January 2, 
1810, of English ancestry, and of the same family tree as Dorothy A. Dix. 
the philanthropist. She was one of seven daughters who grew up in a Chris- 
tian home amid refined arfsociations. Her parents took an active interest 
in church work, especially the singing. It was no unusual thing to see them 
and their seven daughters seated in the church choir, the mother and daugh- 
ters air dressed in white. This happy home circle was destined to be broken, for in Feb- 
ruary, 1833, Mr. W. H. Gray, of Utiea, N. Y., who had lately returned from the Oregon 
country, where he had gone in 1836 with Dr. Marcus Whitman and Rev. H. H. Spalding, 
as secular agent of the minions they went to establish, sought the hand of the eldest 
daughter, Mary, in marriage. Not a wife alone did he £teek, but a co-laborer in this 
missionary field. Esteeming it a privilege to do the work of the liord, she seemed to hear 
in this offer the voice of the Master calling her to His service. She accepted Mr. Gray, 
anH within a month married him, bidding adieu to home and kindred. 

Traveling by steamer and stage coach, Mr. and Mrs. Gray arrived at Independence, 
Mo., where they were joined by their fellow-missionaries, Rev. Cushing Eells, Rev. Elkanah 
Walker, Mr. and Mrs. A. B. Smith and a Mr. Rogers. There were more dangers and hard- 
ships than had been anticipated. Horseback riding in imagination and in reality they found 
to be two very different things. They spoke of this journey as going to sea on land. 
Perils beset them on every hand. Swift streams were to be forded, and deep ravines to 
be croersed. Indians often surrounded their <*anip, standing around like great dogs, and 
sometimes even followed them all «lay. Their tents were their houses, the bed and bed- 
ding a buffalo robe, a piece of oil cloth and blankets. Often they slept in their blankets 
when saturated from the rain, and upon rising in the morning put on their clothes as wet 
as when they took them off the night before. When they halted for the night the tents 
were pitched, the robes spread upon the ground within, then the piece of oil cloth. The 
saddles and loose baggage were arranged neatly about the walls inside; the blankets were 
rolled up and placed around the center for seats, and within the space the tablecloth was 
spread for the evening meal. Half-past three in the morning all were astir. Animals 
were turned out to feed, breakfast prepared and eaten, dishes washed, repacking done, 
morning prayers, and they were ready for the journey of another day. 

One hundred and twenty-nine days after leaving Independence, Mo., they reached 
Whitman Mission, August 29, 1838. Dr. and Mrs. Whitman and Rev. and Mrs. Spalding 
were anxiously awaiting their arrival, and joyously received these weary voyagers. 

Mr. and Mrs. Spalding having established a mission to Lapwai, Mr. and Mrs. Gray 
went there to assist them. 

Mrs. Gray entered heartily into the work of teaching the Indian women and chil- 
dren. Immediately erhe began her labors with fifty or more natives, whom she taught 
under a pine tree until a log schoolhouse could be built. This is described as a puncheon* 
seated, earth-floored building. Here she taught till November, 1842. 

Mrs. Gray had a remarkably sweet and finely trained voice. When she first joined 
in the singing at family prayers, Mr. Spalding realized that her singing would be a 
power in their Sunday worship, and requesfted her to conduct that part of the service. 
When the Indians heard her sing they were visibly impressed, and spoke of her as 
"Christ's sister," long after related by the old Indians and Hudson's Bay men. No doubt 
the awakening powers of her voice (coupled with her rare sweetness of character) had 
much to do with bringing about the great revival among the Nez Perce Indians. Sev- 


PTal hundred made ponfeasion of religion, which was, in a measure, lasting, fnr voaTB after 
Mr, apalciiiijt left this field the iDdiann in many of rhe lorlgeH t-ontimied to rea<l the Bible, 
mnK hymns, pray and at their meals return thanks. 

November, 1842, Mr. Gray, having severed Ms eonneetion with the misaions, and ac- 
cepted the appointment as secular agent fnr the Oregon Institute, the family moved to the 
Willamette Valley, With her husband, son and two daughters, she made a journey which 
would now seem most novel. The Columbia being the great highway of travel, the party 
embarked upon its waters in a Hudson's Bay Company batteau, and went as far as Celilo. 
From this point to the rascades they were conveyed in an Indian canoe. Here Mr. Gray 
decided to take the trail, believing it safer than the turbulent waters of the Columbia. 
Mrs. Gray and her little ones quit the swift-gliding canoe to take passage on the backs 




of Mme jogging Indian ponies. When they were deep in the mountain fastness, they 
encountered a, heavy snow storm, which made further traveling in any direction impossible. 
Mr. Gray dispatcheci some of his Indian guides to Fort Vancouver for help. At the Co- 
lumbia they found a canoe, in which they made their way down the river. As soon as 
Dr. McLoughlin heard that a woman and little children were in the mountains snow- 
bound, he at once sent to their relief a batteau, manned by Hudson's Bay Company men. 
Tn this dismal situation strongest hearts were tried, but Mrs. Gray, ever equal to the 
emergency, calmed their fears, and dispelled the gloom. She sent out over woodland and 
mountain peak the sounds of her voice as she sang hymns of devotion and praise. The 
oarsmen, wending their way up the Columbia, caught the strains of her song wafted over 
the waters, and were thus directed to the spot where the members of the little party ware 


imprisoned. The kind-iiearted boatmen soon conveyed them to the river bank, where they 
gladly embarked for Fort Vancouver. 

In after years Mr. and Mrs. Gray resided in various places, always laboring to 
advance the cause of Christ. They exerted a decided influence in the interest of tem- 
perance and of education. Their home was the center from which radiated all social and 
reform movements. In 1846 they assisted in founding on Clatsop Plains the first Presby- 
terian church in the Northwest. 

Mrs. Gray's presence was gentle and dignified. Many there are yet who bear 
testimony to the liobility of her character. She possessed a pure spirit and a strong soul, 
and was so pacific in her disposition that under the severest tester she remained calm and 
self-possessed. When in her last moments her husband asked her, '^Mother, are you going 
to leave utff Are you ready!" she replied: "Yes, if it is the Lord's will. I have en- 
deavored to serve Him and He will not forsake me now." Her last wor^s were a prayer 
that her husband, children and friends might join her in the Father's house not made with 
hands. With this prayer upon her lips she passed away, December 8, 1881, at her country 
home, the Clatskanie farm, aged nearly seventy-two yearer. Nine children were born 
to this divinely appointed mother, seven of whom survived her. 

In 1870 Mr. and Mrs. Gray returned on a visit to their old home in the State of 
New York, going to San Francisco by steamer, and then across the continent by rail. 
Whisked along on the fast-moving train was in sharp contrast to their firert journey over 
these plains on horseback thirty-two years before. 

In closing this recital of some of the events in this^ noble, * consecrated life, we 
relate the following as proof that the motive power in it all was^^ deep iind abiding sub- 
mission to what she believed to be the will of God. Not long 'before^ her death her 
daughter, Mrs. Kamm, said to her: ''Mother, I have often wondered how, with your edu- 
cation and surroundings, the refinements of life you were accustomed to, -and your per- 
sonal habits, you could possibly have made up your mind to marry a man to whom you 
were a total stranger so efhort a time before, and go with him on such a terrible journey 
thousands of miles from civilization into an unknown wilderness, exposed 'if' countless 
dangers. Mother, how did you do itf " After a few moments' pause her mother replied 
with great earnestness and solemnity: ''Carrie, I dared not refuse. Ever since the day 
I gave myself to Jesus, it had been my daily prayer, 'Lord, what will thou have me to dof ' 
When this 'queptipifc, ' Will fA go to Oregon as one of a little band of missionaries to 
teach the poor Indians of theiV/Saryiorf wq^ f^ddenly proposed to me, I felt that it ^,jtoL. 
the call of the Lord, and I could not do otherwise. ' ' ^'^ 


The banking house of Ladd & Bush, Salem, Oregon, was organized in 1867 by a 
co-partnership of Asahel Bush of Salem, W. S. Ladd of Portland, and C. E. Tilton of 
New York. This partnership lasted until 1883, when Mr. Asahel Bush purchased his 
partner's interest and continued the business under the same name and style, and later 
taking his son, Mr. A. N. Bush, into partnership with him, the old firm name being retained. 
With abundant capital to meet such demands as may be placed upon them for the moving 
of crops and legitimate business enterprises, with long and tried experience in banking 
matters and in the making of collections, with improved vaults and safes guarded by 
the best time locks, they are at all times able to give protection and care to such business 
as is entrusted to them. ' 


Is attracting the attention of far-sighted investors who are looking for an absolutely 
reliable security. The best results will be obtained by investing now. Long experience 
in handling Portland property and management of non-resident interests. 

'mvHos ^ ^^vxsaNiHo 

246 Stark Street, Portland, Oregon. 


Pioneer Women of Methodism in the Northwe^ 


fHEBE apiH^ared at the frontier trading post of St. Louis in 1832, 
four Indians who had come from the distant shores of the "Weatem 
ocean asking for the "White Man's Boolt of Heaven." After 
months of unavailing search, overpowered by hardships and dis- 
appointments, two of their number sueciimbed, and with saddened 
faces their companions turned homeward, their quest unfulfilled. Throufth- 
out our country the fruitless mission of these savage people was related. 
The religious world, stirred to its depths, called for volunteers to carry the 
message of the Ijord to these loniring souls. To the quiet homes of old New 
England the summons came, and, moved by a holy purpose, young wives 
turned from the ahelter of their fire- 
sides to brave with their husbands 
the unknown perils of the wilderness. 
Into the schools and collepes the ci-y 
penetrated, and culturerl young 
women, as well as stalwart young 
men, eagerly offered to share in the 
dangers and privileges of this great 
mission. Jason Lee, a hardy young 
college man, filled with deep religious 
fervor, was the first to respond to 
this appeal. In 1834, with two com- 
panions, he set forth on his perilous 
joume.v to the westward, and, in less 
than a year, had begun his work 
among the Indians. By 1840 two mis- 
sionary settlements had been formed 
in the Oregon territory {as the whole 
Northwest was then called) , the 
Presbyterian, east of the Cascade 
Mountains, under the direction of 
Br. Marcus Whitman and Rev. H. H. 
Spalding, and the Methodist, on 
the banks of the Willamette, super- 
intended by Jason Lee. taylor-street m. e, church. 

The lasting influence of the Methodist mission is largely due to the 
courageous hearts and patient devotion of the women, who gave their youth 
and strength to the establishment of this work. These women, who dared 
the long ocean voyage, or braved the sufferings and privations of the overland 


trail, were either the youthful wives of the missionary workers, or young 
women teachers. Among their number were Puritan daughters of >Jew 
England^ who had inherited the daring spirit of their forefathers, and in 
whose veins flowed the blood of revolutionary heroes. They possessed the 
characteristics of the true pioneer. To them belonged an unfaltering courage 
which brought them through many a peril on their toilsome way, which led 
them undismayed by hostile tribes and left them unafraid to meet death in 
the wilderness. Endurance was theirs. In all the records there is no mur- 
muring about their difficulties, no regret that they had undertaken so hazard- 
ous a mission; but steadfast in hope and unswerving in purpose, they made 
their journey to a strange land. Above all they had the spirit* of self- 
sacrifice. They had not sought to explore new scenes nor, like the early 
settlers of California, were they lured of gold ; but for the glory of their re- 
ligion and the love of humanity they sought in the isolation of the Oregon 
forests two thousand miles from the nearest church bell to become a civilizing 
power. In the homes and in the settlements not only among those of their 
own race, but upon those they had come to teach, their presence made for 
all that is permanent in the social and moral life. 

Indians eager for the light were not awaiting them, but a degraded tribe, 
weakened by disease, listened indiflPerently to their teachings. The mission 
work was doomed. In 1848 it had to be abandoned, but not before a little 
had been accomplished in the betterment of the race for which the sacrifice 
had been made. Although the work was given up, there had come to these 
young settlers a love for the snow-covered peaks and grass-grown valleys 
of the land of their adoption, and there was no thought of returning to the 
East. Here they had suffered and sorrowed ; here they had toiled, and here 
they would cast their fortunes. They remained loyal to the great church, 
under whose auspices they had come, and the influential position of the 
Methodist denomination in the Northwest to-day is due not alone to the 
sterling qualities of the men who pioneered the work, but to the cultured 
Christian character of the women as well. Not only the church, but the 
state owes a debt of gratitude to these women who helped lay the foundations 
for the social structure that is our heritage to-day. 

It was one of these pioneer women. Miss Chloe A. Clark, who opened 
the first school for higher education in Oregon, the Oregon Institute, and 
many of the sons and daughters of the settlers received from her and her 
associates the inspiration of higher ideals. This school, almost entirely 
supported by the early missionaries, was the leading educational institution 
of the state. 

The missionary women sowed the seeds of righteous living. In the 
midst of the wilderness they set up their homes. It was one of their number 
(Anna Maria Pittman Lee, wife of Jason Lee) who was the first Ameri- 
can wife and the first American mother in Oregon's boundaries, and it was 
this wife and mother who was the first white woman to be laid beneath 
Oregon's soil. They helped to rear the bulwarks for the future state in 


moulding the characters of their children. The lessons they had learned in 
battling against hardships and surmounting difficulties led them to instill 
these principles of courage and endurance into the minds of their sons and 
daughters. The part they had played in planting in the Willamette Valley a 
colony, American in thought and purpose, inspired their children and their 
children's children with a patriotic love of their country and a desire to 
defend and preserve it. To their children they have left the rich heritage 
oi an honored name and lives well spent. 

Abigail Scott Duniway 


HEN we consider the hands that build a nation, we naturally look 
to those whose workmanship is uppermost — the statesman, the leg- 
islator^ the soldier, the philanthropist, the author, the painter, 
and the poet. Beneath all these we find the work of smaller, but 
sometimes mightier, hands. The former may have laid the comer- 
stone and fitted the keystone to the arch, but the solid masonry of the founda- 
tion, upon which the entire structure must rest, is the work largely of the 

The hands that work unobserved and silently have builded into the 
national edifice that which* will enable it to withstand the storms of time; 
and these hands are the hands that rock the cradle — ^the hands that keep the 
hearthstone bright and the light burning in the window for wandering feet. 

Sometimes the great hands that have helped to chisel out the comer- 
stone and to mold out of human thought the keystone to the arch have also 
been among the silent workers. While building grandly above,- they have 
reached down among the workers in the realm of home and builded as 
grandly and as wisely there. 

Among these dual workers are most of the women whose names stand 
pre-eminent as builders in state, in literature, In philanthropy — ^not least of 
whom is our own Abigail Scott Duniway. 

In our community is the fruit of her home work. Five sons, solid citi- 
zens of their country, stand as worthy testimony to a mother's work. As a 
public worker in the cause of freedom, as a framer of laws for betterment 
of the condition of women under the law, Mrs. Duniway stands equal to any ; 
as a mother and home-builder second to none. M. 0. D. 

Prom the diary of Mrs. Elkanah Walker (a missionary of 1838) : ** Feb- 
ruary 15. Camped at the Sweet Water at the foot of Independence Rock, so- 
called because the Fur Company once celebrated Independence day here. In 
company with Mr. and Mrs. Gray went to the top of the rock. This, I should 
judge, is one hundred feet high and a half mile in circumference. It is coarse 
granite, quartz predominating.'' 


Charlotte Moffett Cartwright 

I HARLOTTE TERWILLIGER was born in Chicago, III., December 
21, 1842. Her father, James Terwilliger, was a Hollander, anij 
her mother, Sophronia Hurd, of Scotch descent. 

In May, 1845, Mr. Terwilliiter, with his wife and four children, 
started across the plains to Oregon. He was in the part.v that took 
the Stephen Meek's "cut-off," All the company came near perishing before 
they found their way out of the wilderness. Like many others, his wife 
was prostrated by the perils and hardships and survived only a few days 

after they reached The ' 
Dalles. Mr. Terwilliger ar- 
rived at the present site of 
Portland in November, 1845, 
and erected the first dwell- 
ing house — a log cabin — on 
the immcdiHte spot where the city h>id birth in 1847. 
The name of Charlotte 
Terwilliger is enrolled as one 
of the first pupils of the first 
school taught in Portland. 
April 12, 1860, she was mar- 
ried to Walter Moffett, a 
young Englishman. They 
settled at once in the little 
home Mr. Moffett had made 
ready on Seventh street, 
where he Intev erected the 
house since owned and occu- 
pied continuously by his 
family. This home was ever 
open to all who sought its 
portals, especially to young 
men and young women, by 
whom its kind mistress 
was affectionately called 
"Mother Moffett." Mother- 

MRS. C. M. CARTWRIOHT AND GRANDSON. ]egg |itt|e oneS, tOO, found 

shelter here. One daughter and five sons were born ti) Mr. and Mrs. Moffett, 
of whom two are living — -Tames and William. 

In 1862 they went to Europe and traveled for two years in France and 
the British Isles, spending much of the time, however, at the home of Mr. 
Moffett 's childhood in merry old England, where his mother still lived. 



Mr. Moffett, being a ship maater, spent much time on the sea. While 
out on a long voyage in 1S78 the mystic boatman bore him to that haven 
beyond the shores of time. His body was brought home, and now rests in 
the Lone Fir cemetery with his three sons and only daughter. 

March 8, 1887, Mrs. Jloffett was again happily married to Mr. C. M. Cart- 
wright, of Eastern Oregon. In his beautiful mountain home a new field 
opened to her. This place was the borne ranch for the many hands employed 
in Mr. Cartwright's extensive stock business. To their comfort she attended 
with care. They held her in high esteem, fully appreciating her motherly 
kiminess. The entire community was to her an object of interest. She 
visited the country schpol in the neighborhood frequently, but the Sunday 
school received her most earnest efforts. In connection with this she estab- 


lished, at her own expense, a circulating library of standard works. These 
were carried into homes a hundred miles distant, but always returned. 
Many a lone sheepherder's cabin has been cheered by these good books. 

Mrs. Cartwright's characteristics are unselfishness, kindness and benevo- 
lence. It is her delight to promote the well-being of others. Her many acts 
of generosity are gratefully remembered. Her motto has ever been, "Let not 
thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth." Her friends of fifty years 
ago are her friends still. 

A pioneer among pioneers, she is chairman of the Woman's Auxiliary 
to the State Pioneers' Association, a place she has filled with acceptance for 
many years. She is first vice president of the State Equal Suffrage Asso- 
ciation, of the Forestry Club and of the Sacajawea Statue Association; she 
is a charter member of the Portland Woman's Club, and fills the place of 
chairman of the Oregon History Department in the club. 



Sketch from the Life of a Pioneer Minister 


MARRIED a handsome and accomplished young lady in the city of 
Pittsburg, Penn., at 6 o'clock a. m., and at 7 of the same day 
took the advice of Horace Greeley, ''Go West, young man, go 
West/' Having advertised for a company to go as a Presby- 
terian colony to Oregon, we rendezvoused in St. Joseph^ Mo., and 
on the 5th day of May, 1852, we crossed the Missouri River and were on In- 
dian territory. We journeyed continuously, except on the Sabbath day, 
which we observed religiously, for four and a half months, when we arrived 
in Oregon City September 20. Here we received our first mail from home. 
After a welcome rest we resumed our journey up the Willamette Valley, and 
located in Benton County, thanks to Uncle Sam, who gave us all a farm. 

Now comes the home life. We obtained rough lumber at a sawmill ten 
miles distant and erected our little cottage on the prairie, where we lived 
without doors or windows for one year. By the fireplace, which, with the 
chimney, was made of mortar only, the good wife did all of her baking and 
cooking. But, you ask, what did you have to eat? Flour at $10 per hun- 
dred pounds, potatoes at $3 per bushel, beef 25 cents per pound, and butter 
$1 a pound. Sadder still, we had no money to buy with. 

Owing to the generosity of the government in giving such large dona- 
tion claims, neighbors were remote from each other, but they were kind and 
obliging. Earlier pioneers remembered that they, too, were pilgrims and 
strangers, and how much they enjoyed the kindness and assistance given 
them in time of need, and each newcomer soon learned how to show Western 

There were a great many old bachelors among the early settlers of the 
country. They were required to live on their claims to hold them. Lonely 
and disconsolate, they sighed for the joys and comforts of a real home. The 
married man could double his possessions, as the government gave the wife 
also, in her own name, one-half of a section of land. Hence on each fresh 
arrival of immigrants these anxious bachelors were on the lookout for a fair 
young lady to share their comforts and increase their possessions. Too often 
they married in haste and soon parted. And yet, as a rule, marriages were 
of the type that are made in heaven, each loving pair laboring diligently to 
build up a permanent and happy home. 

We were a contented people, as we should be, holding. such possessions 
in a goodly county, with a mild climate, rich and productive soil, conditions 
that never fail to produce crops sufl&cient to meet the demands of every indus- 
trious laborer. 

Oregon Territory enjoyed the distinction of being a prohibition district. 


The constitution prohibited the importation, manufacture or trafiSc of dis- 
tilled liquors. The saloons had not yet commenced their deadly work. The 
country was new and healthy; no prevailing epidemic. There were few ac- 
cidents, and fewer murders. When death did visit a family the neighbors 
came to their assistance, comforted the bereaved, made the coffin, dug the 
grave, and conveyed the remains to its final resting place. The minister 
of the gospel directed the mourners to the true source of all comfort. Thus 
we assisted and comforted one another without compensation or cost. Now 
it requires a great deal of money to die and receive a Christian burial. 

The first work of the pioneer was to build a house to shelter the family. 
But soon the schoolhouse was erected, and for lack of churches the ministers 
preached in the schoolhouses, and very often in the log cabin homes of the 
people. The different denominations were well represented even in pioneer 
days and their ministers were intelligent, well educated and godly men. 
devoted to the Master's work. They traveled everywhere on horseback, 
swam rivers and endured hardships to establish the Christian religion. These 
brave men continued in their work, organized churches and established and 
strengthened them. 

Soon it became necessary to erect houses of worship, and in this as 
in all other things the minister must take the lead. Let me give one case 
as an illustration. The congregation wished to build a house of worship. 
They insisted that the pastor should head the subscription list, which he 
did by subscribing 10,000 feet of clear lumber from the mountain mills fifteen 
miles distant (and lumber cost money in those days). Then he hauled all 
this lumber with his own team when it required twelve hours to make the 
trip. Also 5,000 feet of lumber was purchased and brought by raft and tied 
up to the river bank. A call was made for volunteer help to bring the lum- 
ber from the river to the church lot. The minister with his team and a 
merchant of the town alone appeared. They took the lumber and delivered 
it on the church grounds, and when the work was done they looked more 
like longshoremen than pastor and merchant. After great sacrifice and long 
delay the house was finished. The work was all done by hand, as there was 
not a planing mill or sash and door factory in the country. It was dedicated 
free from debt, and it yet accommodates a large congregation after nearly a 
half century's service. 

And what sacrifices the minister must make ! A church member may be 
absent from service on account of storm or flood, but never the minister ; he 
must be there, rain or shine. I know one minister who, during the decade 
from 1850 to 1860, was immersed twelve times, each time having a good horse 
under him. On one occasion in January, after swimming a stream and being 
wet to the shoulders, he rode twenty-five miles and preached that night and 
twice on Sunday in the same wet clothes. And he still lives and loves to tell 
of the arduous work of those days. Those pioneer ministers frequently 
traveled two hundred miles on horseback to attend special meetings or con- 
ferences, and were of necessity absent from home a great deal. And yet 


they continued in the work at less than half pay. Many of them have 
ceased from their labors and entered into their everlasting rest. **Well 
done, good and faithful servants." A few are yet living, though ** honorably 
retired/' and they look back with pleasure on the grand results as they 
contrast those feeble churches with the strong and well supported ones of 
the present day, and rejoice in the great things God has done for us on this 

Eliza Spalding Warren 

Sketch of the Second White Child Bom in the Oregon G>initry 

I was bom at Lapwai November 15, 1837. Here my father and mother, 
Rev. and Mrs. H. H. Spalding, had established a mission in 1836, the year in 
which they crossed the plains in company with Dr. and Mrs. Whitman and 
W. IT. Gray. The mission was among the Nez Perce Indians. 

In ray childhood there was not a white person within a hundred miles of 
us. I can well remember the deep interest father and mother shared in 
teaching and otherwise helping the Indians. How often do I recall the 
days when we lived among them, and how safe we felt notwithstanding our 

When I was 9 years old my parents sent me to Dr. Whitman's mission 
to attend school. As father did not have the time to go with me, I was 
sent that long distance through the Indian country in the care of an Indian 
woman. When night came, no thought of danger, no fears; we would camp 
just like the Indians — our horses tethered near by on the grass. That con- 
fidence my father and mother had in the Indians no doubt was the key to 
their success as teachers and guides. 

When we had occasion to take trips, we traveled as the Indians did, on 
horseback with pack horses; we camped where night overtook us; crossed 
the rivers in canoes and swam our horses. Things, however, changed as 
other influences came among the Indians. 

The frontier has a great charm for me. Now in these advanced years 
of my life I have settled in a little home on the beautiful Lake Chelan, near 
the great snow-capped mountains, and here I hope to spend my remaining 


Is the select suburb of Portland. Two electric car lines every fifteen minutes 
until 12 o'clock midnight. Any one intending to build should examine this 
beautiful location before selecting a site. C. H. Prescott, trustee, 22-23 Cham- 
ber of Commerce. 


A Pioneer Country Physician 


OSEPH S. NEWMAN, a merchant of Terre Haute, Ind., started in 
the spring of 1852 with his family and a train of his own across the 
plains to Oregon. Mr. Newman was taking a large stock of dry 
goods to begin a business in the Oregon Territory. When they 
arrived at the Missouri River they found the stream swollen to 
nciany times its normal size. Here our travelers were compelled to await 
their turn to be ferried over the river. Three weeks elapsed before all of 
Mr. Newman's train was across. Then the journey in the wilderness began. 
At long intervals military posts had been established. Hostile Indians 
roamed about, but Mr. Newman and his men were well armed; so little fear 
regarding the Indians was felt. 

The company journeyed along until a point 250 miles west of Port 
Laramie was reached. Here, early one afternoon, they camped on the north 
bank of the Platte River. The horses and oxen were turned out to feed on 
the abundant grass. As evening approached buffalo were seen in the dis- 
tance. Mr. and Mrs. Newman mounted their fleetest horses and rode in 
pursuit of the herd. The chase was exciting, and they rode far, but without 
success. Wearied, they returned to camp. Mr. Newman drank copiously of 
cold water; that night he was attacked by cholera, and within twenty-four 
hours was a corpse. Scarcely had his body been laid away when Mrs. New- 
man became a victim of the dread scourge, hnt the timely arrival of medical 
aid saved her life. 

Then was enacted one of those events that portray the perfidy of some 
natures in contrast to the heroic courage of others. While Mrs. Newman 
was battling for life against the cholera, those miscreants, her hired men, 
conspired to rob and desert her. Selecting the best teams and taking all 
the wagons except the one she occupied, they drove away, leaving the pros- 
trated woman and her children by the roadside, hundreds of miles from 
kindred and friends. But possessed of sublime courage and fully realizing 
her danger, she was up from her sick bed as soon as strength would permit, 
and, with the aid of her two stepsons, hastily prepared to return to her 
friends in Indiana, though roving bands of Indians made this a desperate 
undertaking. At this juncture an emigrant train came along, which she 
gladly joined and came on to Oregon. With the aid only of her two boys, 
10 and 12 years of age, she managed her teams. Only in places of special 
difSculty or danger had she to accept assistance from her fellow travelers. 
Thus the long journey was accomplished. October found her safely housed 
for the winter in a little log cabin on the banks of the Santiam River. This 


cabin was the property of that true Virginia gentleman^ John Crabtree, who, 
with his estimable wife, never forgot the widow and the orphan. Through 
all that first winter in Oregon they made it their concern to know that she 
and her children were provided with food and fuel. Here we will leave her 
for the present. 

In the fall of 1852 Dr. W. P. Alexander arrived in the western part of 
Oregon. So charmed was he with this beautiful land that he decided to make 
a permanent home within its borders. Before starting for the West he had 
purchased a stock of drugs and medicines, with which to open a practice 
upon his arrival in Oregon. But scarcely had he passed beyond the limits 
of civilization when it became necessary to draw upon his precious store. A 
little party of emigrants encamped on the north bank of the Platte River 
had fallen victims to the cholera. The owner of the train was first seized and 
quickly succumbed. Then the widow was stricken. Learning that a phy- 
sician was in a train near by, a messenger was sent for him. He speedily 
responded to the call, and by his skill the woman's life was saved. 

Through all the long journey the doctor spared neither strength, time 
nor substance in his efforts to relieve the suffering. He saw his little store 
of medicine, the representative of all his worldly wealth, grow smaller and 
smaller till nothing remained; his empty purse was also a mute witness to 
his kindly generosity. So upon his arrival in Oregon, though rich in youth, 
he was penniless. Winter was at hand and wants were pressing. He soon 
found employment as teacher in a country school on French Prairie. At 
the close of the term he went to the Albany Prairie, where he located a claim 
and built his cabin, the nucleus of the home he hoped to establish. 

The doctor had never lost sight of the woman whom he first met on the 
banks of the Platte and whom he saved from death. Now that he had 
a home, humble though it was, to offer her, he sought Mrs. Newman, who ac- 
cepted his proffered heart and home, and they were married in Linn County, 
Oregon, February 15, 1853, and settled on the farm the doctor had located. 
Here he entered upon the practice of medicine, and continued with slight in- 
termissions for more than thirty years. 

A country doctor's work is always hard. In those early days it was 
arduous. Then a trip of thirty or forty miles on horseback to visit a patient 
was a common occurrence ; but this was only one of the difficulties the doctor 
had to surmount, as the following memorandum will show: 

Mr. B , living on a farm twelve miles distant, was taken ill with 

typhoid fever. Dr. Alexander was called to attend him. Rain had been 
falling several weeks, and the miry roads were well nigh impassable. 
Mounted on a strong, spirited horse, the doctor made his way comfortably 
enough until the Calipooia River was reached, where he found the bridge 
swept away and the waters overflowing the banks. What was to be done! 
The thought of the stricken man waiting for him helped him to decide. 
Touching his horse the animal plunged into the stream, but was soon swept 
off its feet. Then together horse and rider struggled against the swift current 


nntil the opposite bank was reached. Arriving at the bedside of the patient 
he found him critically ill. Trained nurses were unknown, and it often de- 
volved upon the doctor, as it did in this instance, to assume the post of 
nurse, sometimes to watch by the side of a patient throughout the night. 
The journey over the miry roads and swimming the Calipooia was repeated 
many times, until the hardships, fatigue and exposure to the contagion proved 
too much for the physician's strength. He, too, was stricken with the fever. 
After weeks of serious illness, health and strength were restored. 

There were no hospitals, but sufferers had to be cared for. The doctor's 
doors were open to all, and many came ; the sick, the lame and the blind sought 
his skill and found shelter and kindly care under his roof. Often that 
country home resembled more a hospital than a private residence. In the 
care of the af9icted his noble wife lent invaluable service. Her sweet and 
gentle presence made her tender care of these sufferers itself a healing balm. 
So dearly beloved was she and so highly valued in the community that the 
whole country about was in mourning over her death, which occurred within 
a few years. To this day no name is more tenderly revered by those who 
knew her than that of the good and beautiful Annie Alexander. Her 
mother was Lady Hastings, wife of Lord Hastings, though a second husband, 
Colonel Shombre, was the father of Mrs. Alexander. 

Time brought many sad changes to Dr. Alexander. The irregular life 
and incessant toil of a country physician told upon his health, and manhood's 
later prime found him a physical wreck. Following came financial losses, 
and he had the sorrow of seeing the home he had carved out of the wilder- 
ness pass into other hands. 

Surrounded by his children, whose devotion did much to lighten his 
sorrows and compensate him for his losses, he spent his last years in Santa 
Clara, Cal. There, in sublime patience, despite his great suffering, he awaited 
the summons that must come to all, and on Christmas day, 1902, he answered 
the call, having completed his four score years. 

V* IS. 

Rt. Mary's Academy is situated in Jacksonville, Oregon, the terminus of the Rogue 
River VaUey Railway, which connects twice a day with the Southern Pacific at Medford, 
five miles east. The healthfulness of the location, with the facilities for obtaining a solid 
refined education, renders the place an ideal one for the education of girls. 

The object of this institution is to impart to young ladies a Christian education, 
useful and cultured; in a word, to teach all that is taught in the most approved schools. 

The moral and intellectual improvement of the pupils is attendrd to with the greatest 
solicitude, and the most devoted attention paid to their domestic comfort. The pupils are 
at all hours under the watchful care and government of their teachers. 

No distinction is made in the reception of pupils on account of religious opinions, 
and all interference with the convictions of non-Catholics is carefully avoided. Good 
order, however, requires that all should conform to the general regulations of the academy. 

This institution, conducted by the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary, 
is incorporated, and authorized by the state to confer graduating honors, which consist of a 
diploma and a gold medal. The four years' academic course includes advanced work in 
English, Latin, modern languages, mathematics, science, history, and physiology. 

For further particulars apply to the Sister Superior. 



Habt^B of tlfr l^xanntB 


Tired cattle stTimbled on the dusty trail, 
Men's hearts grew faint and women's cheeks turned palo 
But some there were who knew no cares nor fears — 
The laughing babies of the pioneers. 

The giant mountains made their gloomy boast. 
And frowned defiance at the weary host, 
But still their laughter lightened toil and tears — 
Those jocund babies of the pioneers. 

Where widening rivers rolled in sullen pride, 
Bearing a menace on each sombre tide, 
Their voices woke the mirth that charms and cheers — 
Those bonny babies of the pioneers. 

Wherever danger lurked and courage failed. 
When even the stout hearts of their fathers quailed, 
They scorned the foeman's arrows and his spears — 
Those sturdy babies of the pioneers. 

Life's morning broadened into glowing day. 
Life's noontide faded into twilight gray, 
They bore the heavy burdens of the years — 
Those stalwart children of the pioneers. 

The time of testing is forever past, 
The days of rest and honor come at last; 
We give them every title that endears — 
Those toil-worn children of the pioneers. 

And still they smile, as memory leads the way 
Along the trails the cattle made that day ; 
They smile and wait till evening's star appears — 
Those gray-haired children of the pioneers. 


Some Early Oregon Schools 


ARLY in the spring of 1846 our parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. T. Hun- 
saker^ started from Illinois with their family of five children to 
** cross the plains/* my mother driving a light two-horse wagon 
with her small children in it. They were part of a large ** com- 
pany" from the prairie state. 

As soon as they could safely leave the *' company" east of the Cascade 
Mountains, they pushed on alone over the ** Barlow road," theirs being the first 
wagon to come directly over — from the plains across. How well I remember 
the momentous event, to us children, of getting our wagon down Laurel Hill 
by means of ropes, one end tied to the wagon and the other around a tree, 
while father, with the assistance of mother and brother Horton, would slowly 
lower it to a place where the horses could safely draw it again. 

But I must go on to my school. We went directly past Oregon City to 
the Molalla, where we found shelter in a log cabin of two rooms (more than 
one was a luxury in those days), and one was generously given **the emi- 
grants." The first thing after a shelter was to get in a fall crop. That ac- 
complished, the men of the neighborhood put up a primitive log schoolhouse 
with puncheon floor, rock-stick-and-mud fireplace and chimney, benches made 
of puncheons with holes bored and pegs stuck in for legs; no windows, no 
desks, no table. 

Father came home one evening and told us they had the teacher engaged 
to begin school, a man by the name of Snyder. *'I must go to Oregon City 
to-morrow," he said, *'and get the children some books and leather to make 
shoes." Each man was his own family shoemaker in those days. Ah! 
what pleasure at the thought of shoes and books! How anxiously were we 
looking as the time drew near for his return ; but evening came and no father. 
It grew dark; we waited, we watched, we listened. The weird, lone sound 
of wolves was all that greeted us. It must have been 9 o'clock when we 
heard his welcome voice calling for Horton to come and get the parcels while 
he went on to put his horse away. 

What queer-looking books they were — long rolls of what seemed to be 
paper, simply printed newspaper, and that was what kept him so late, waiting 
for them to be printed. How carefully and, it seemed to me, reverently, 
mother opened the parcel, and how disappointed we were to see the books. 

After mother had given father his supper she went to work folding, sew- 
ing and pasting our books, while father busied himself taking the measure 
of our feet for shoes. We went to bed leaving them thus employed by the 
light of the open fire and tallow candles, or perhaps a tin cup or plate with 
grease in it and a twisted rag-string burning. 

When I awakened next morning it seemed to me they had been working 


all nighty for there sat father at work on the shoes, whUe mother was pre- 
paring the breakfast; on the table were our books. Oh! such lovely books, 
covered with a piece of one of mother's worn-out calico dresses, her prettiest 
dress, I thought. No city boy or girl could be more pleased with their nice 
new books than we were. And the rapture of it ! Such cute thumb-papers in 
each! What boy or girl nowadays knows what a thumb-paper isT Simply a 
piece of paper folded in fanciful shape. Happy were those who could boast 
a pretty colored one that would be too good for every-day use. In holding 
our books while studying, the paper rested under the thumb and saved wear- 
ing the book. 

Father had only finished one pair of shoes (Horton's) ; the rest of us 
were barefooted, and there was a light fall of snow on the ground, but there 
was no talk of staying at home. Horton went ahead and scraped one foot 
along, thus clearing the snow from a path for us small girls to walk in. I 
have often wondered if we cried with our cold feet. I have no recollection 
of doing so. Perhaps the thought of our books, thumb-papers, and school 
kept us from noticing our feet. Any way, before school was out that after- 
noon father was at the schoolhouse with our shoes slung over his shoulders, 
and how proudly we put them on in front of the fire, with the other children 
interested onlookers. Whether we had stockings or not I do not recall. 

I cannot say how long Mr. Snyder taught, but my first recollection of 
gingerbread was while he was teaching. There was some talk of fasteninsr 
him out if he did not ** treat'' (according to some custom), and he sent to 
Oregon City and got gingerbread. It was a treat to be remembered for years. 
After Mr. Snyder closed his school, Miss Allie Cornelius taught us for a brief 

In 1847, I think, father built a sawmill on the Columbia, and moved his 
family there, but sold out after a few months, and we came sailing and rowing 
up the river in a flatboat, past the new town of Portland, to Green Point, 
just below Oregon City. He chose that place because he had heard that 
the Sisters of Notre Dame had opened a school for girls there. We were soon 
enrolled as day pupils, and in a short time as boarders; for father built an- 
other sawmill on the Washougal, and he and mother, with the two younger 
children, had gone there. What a trio of poor little homesick girls, mere 
babes, the eldest not more than 9 years old ! It was here I first saw Dr. Mc- 
Loughlin, who often came to visit the school with his daughter, Mrs. Bae, after- 
ward Mrs. Harvey, whose two daughters were also boarders there. There, too, 
we made the acquaintance of our worthy Dr. Barclay and his lovely bride, 
who, as the years went by, grew even more lovely in person and in character. 
Here were gathered children from all over the Oregon country, whose parents 
in many cases were in the gold fields of California, trusting their children to 
the care of the Sisters. 

In November, 1849, our parents came back from the Washougal mill and 
settled on the dear old place which was to be the future home of the family. 
And I think it was the next year that Mr. Fisher^ a Baptist minister^ opened 


a school in the Baptist Church in the lower end of the town, just across the 
street from the Sisters' school. He had for his assistant his daughter, Lucy 
Jane, who was my teacher, and was greatly Idved by all her pupils. Mr. 
Fisher, to my youthful mind, was very austere, and when Lucy Jane turned the 
third reader class over to him, after our second failure in spelling and defini- 
tions, it was a dreadful moment to me. He kept tis after school, and in dis- 
missing us said in his most impressive voice: '*If this lesson is not correctly 
recited to-morrow I shall make voti boys take oflF your coats and I shall flog 
you And, as for you, miss (pointing to me), I shall ferrule your hands." 

Never shall I forget the fright and hiimiliation I felt. All tbe way home 
I prayed to be able to recite the lesson, and all the evening, and through my 
broken sleep, was a continual prayer. But the next morning I said nothing 
to any one about it, fearing to be blamed for not doing my duty. My at- 
tention was arrested by hearing father say: 

** Mother, the new teachers from the states are here and are to open a 
school for girls in the Congregational Church this morning. Suppose we send 
the girls to them, and let Horton continue at the other school." 

My very breath stopped for the answer, and STich a relief, when, after a 
short talk over it, they decided to make the change. Never a lighter-heai*ted 
^irl started for school than I on that morning. 

These teachers had come out in a ship from the East. Two of them 
were to teach in Oregon City in the seminary, but as the building warf not 
comj)leted they taught at first in the church. 

How happily and gladly I walked past the Baptist Church with father 
to the new school. Never did a face look sweeter or pleasanter to me than 
Miss Lincoln's homely features that morning, meeting us at the door with 
outstretched hands. Her mouth extended across her face as she smilingly 
said, **And are these little girls to be our pupils?" and giving us each a kiss 
of welcome, introduced us to her assistant. Miss Smith. They were both 
old maids, as were the other teachers who came out with them, but they did 
not long enjoy that distinction. Miss Lincoln afterward married Judge 
Skinner and lived long in Oregon. Miss Smith married a Mr. Beers, living 
somewhere near Salem. Miss Vaughn, one of two sisters, married Mr. Facler, 
an Episcopal clergyman. 

As soon as a room in the seminary was ready the school was transferred 
to it, and the remainder of the building was occupied as it was finished. Our 
late lamented Judge Shattuck brought his bride and began his work on this 
coast in that seminary. There their first child, a daughter, was born, and we 
were all permitted to go in and see the new baby, as a part of the building 
was fitted up for housekeeping and for boarding pupils. Later there was a 
division in the school, Mr. Shattuck taking charge of the boys and Miss Clark 
the girls. 

In the early '50s the Sisters closed their school and returned to Canada. 
Mr. Fisher's school continued under the Rev. Geo. C. Chandler. In this 


school ori^ated, I think, the first thought of the Baptist college, which after- 
ward found a permanent home at McMinnville. 

The seminary was continued as a day and boarding school for girls imder 
diflPerent teachers until the advent of Francis E, Hodgson, when boys were 

Throughout the Oregon country, and far beyond, are scattered those 
who attended these early schools. The number included many people of 
wealth and of influence who have filled high positiors in social and civic life, 
and many, very many, have passed on across the [lorderland of time. 


This haodsome building is after tbe ilesiKD of an ancient Moorish structure, and 
Is furrounded bj besntiful grounds, tt is situated at the end of the electric car line 
s,hout one and one-hatf miles from the center of the city. 

a diving pinnge 122x61 
from three to fourteen fnet. 
(or plunge bathers and a large 
all kinds. These baths are 
water from artesian wells 
Ions .per day; temperature at 
tioD to their wonderful cleans- 
have rare medicinal qualities, 
kinds of skin diseases, digea- 

matism, gout, ulcers of the stomach, etc. In addition these we 
and heating purposes in the cit^. They are conducted through 

feet, with a depth ranging 
There are 120 dressing rooms 
number for private baths of 
supplied with natural hot 
havinj; a flow of SOO.OOO gal- 
the wells, 170 Aeg. In addl- 
ing properties, these waters 
Tbey are of great value in all 
liver' troutiles, rheu- 
&re used for domestic 
pipes to the Natator- 

ium, thence to the city, supplying many large buildings and private dwellings with heat. 
The loss in heat sustained varies from 3 to 5 degrees. The total cost of this property is 
i.J30,CO0. It is owned by the Boise Artesian Hot & Cold Water Company. 


Life Sketch of Mrs. Mary A. Denny 

ES. M:*«y A. DENNY was born near Nashville, Robertson County, 
Tennessee, November 25, 1822 — the eldest of three children, two 
daughters and a son. Her father, Richard Freeman Boren, was 
a Baptist minister and^ moved to Illinois when Mary was quite 
young. The field of his la1»ors covered long distances in this new 
and sparsely settled country, and the lif^ proved too strenuous for his not 
very robust constitution. He passed away at the early age of 28, leaving 
his wife with three small children, the subject of this sketch being only 5 
years old. Soon after his death his widow took the children back to her 
father, Joseph Latimer, with whom they remained until about 1830, when he 
decided to remove with his family to Illinois. They settled in Knox County, 
taking up land and opening farms. Mrs. Denny's childhood was spent much 
like that of all children in a new country, attending the district school and 
assisting with the housework, which included spinning and weaving cloth for 
table and bed linen as well as for the family clothing. She was married 
November 23, 1843, to Arthur A. Denny, and in 1851, with their two little 
girls, they emigrated to Oregon. Leaving their Illinois home April 10, they 
reached Portland August 22, where their eldest son was bom September 2. 
On November 5 they took passage on the schooner Exact, Captain Polger, for 
Puget Sound, where they and th^jr party landed November 13. After nearly 
five months of weary travel they had at last reached the **land of promise.'* 
Is it surprising that the tears flowed when Mrs. Denny, with her tiny ba'be 
in her arms, looked around upon the wild unbroken forest and thought of 
the trials, privations and dangers of the life now before her? Mr. and Mrs. 
Denny remained during the winter at **Alki Point," where they first landed. 
The following April, in company with other members of their party, they 
crossed to the east side of Eliot Bay, and located claims where now is the 
city of Seattle. 

Of the intervening fifty-three years much might be said, but as it would 
only be a repetition of the oft told experiences of pioneer women we will only 
add that Mrs. Denny brought up six children, two daughters and four sons, 
and was blessed with the companionship of her devoted husband fifty-six years. 
Now she awaits the end of this mortal life in happy anticipation of a glad 
reunion with him on the other shore. 

Mrs. Denny is living in the enjoyment of the well-earned fruits of early 
industry and economy. In a beautiful home in one of the loveliest parts of the 
city of Seattle she is passing the evening of life. A devoted daughter lov- 
ingly attends her every want. Through her cbmpanibnship and tender min- 
istrations is rounded out the full measure of earthly happiness of this pioneer 



The Dawn of the Sea Wind 


you livo in Nehalem?" There was no answer. 

**I have never seen you with the Nehalem tribe; do you live 
in the hills?'' The girl was silent, motionless. 

Her great dark eyes stared at me, stared until they read my 
innermost soul. What they read there I do not know, but her 
lips curled in scorn. In the depths of her dark eyes I could read that a barrier 
lay between us. I could feel the freedom of unbounded, untrammeled genera- 
tions. I could see the vast forests^ the starlit water courses, the long shafts of 
moonlight shimmering through the trees. I could feel the strength of the 
great plains and the long, barren sandliills. I could hear the roar of mighty 
waterfalls. I could feel the latent force of the passionate love and hate 
which surged through the girl's blood — ithe passion of the primitive. 

And in contrast to it all there arose before me the crowded cities, the 
sordid lives of thousands, huddled together in misery and squalor — ^the poor, 
petty passion which loves by contract and hates by law, and then the clank- 
ing of the chains of conventionality shut out the sight and the sound of 
everji;hing else. The barrier was too strong, the very blood in my veins 
forbade me to grasp the primitive sweetness. And so we stared. 

"When the girl took her eyes from my face it was to look upon a poor 
wizened atom of humanity which lay in her arms. And something sweeter 
than the scorn played about h^r lips. 

The baby's face was pathetically thin. It seemed as old and wrinkled 
as the buckskin wrapped around it. But the child did not cry — a faint little 
gasp came now and then from the baby lips. 

**The baby is sick. You should get it some medicine at the companv's 
store. ' ' 

Then the girl spoke. 

*'At the company's store — ^yes, I have been. They not give. I have 
not money. They — they struck me when I asked again and again." 

**How long — ^how long has the child been sick?" 

**A moon, .and now she dies. She is starving. I am' starving." The 
words came brokenly in the soft Chinook. 

**I have food — medicine," I said. **Will you come? You need no 
money." The words stuck in my throat. Even the Chinook could not cover 
their harshness. 

For an instant her eyes flashed with the inborn hate; then the mother 
love overcame and she followed me. 

Once she turned white and staggered. She would have fallen had I 
not been so near, and when I lifted the tiny bundle from her arms she sighed 
with relief as though the baby's slight weight had burdened her. 



At last we reached mj cabin. Not another living soul was within ten 
miles of us. Behind and on either side stretched the forests; in front lay 
the bay. My skill in medicine is not great, but the intuition which the 
Fates give us in a great emergency came to our aid. And finally the child 


The sunlight was fading. Killamah, the girl, sat beside me on the door- 
step. The sleepy twitter of many birds — the solitary yelp of a distant coyote 
— ^the swish of the water as it lapped against the shore — ^merged into the 
sweet twilight and Killamah spoke.* 

''Will Sea Wind get— get wellT" 

"I cannot tell, dear; perhaps. I wish it more than anything in the 
world. And are you stronger nowT' 

"I am well. 

"You are young, Killamah, and — ^alone?" 


'•And is Sea Wind your child T' 


*'Ha« she a father, Killamah?'' . 

The girl's dark eyes turned full upon me. **Yes." 

For an instant her lips quivered, then she dropped her head in my lap. 

I stroked the thick, dark hair. "Tell me, little one." 

The musical voice was infinitely sadder and more beautiful than any- 
thing I had ever heard. Sometimes it faltered; sometimes the force of it 
thrilled me. 

"Margaret Hill, you understand. You have a child?" 

"No, Killamah." 

"Then you have loved? You not speak — ^largaret Hill, you turn your 
head away. Are you angry?" 

Ah, poor little one, and had she loved — ^too? 

"No, Killamah, I am not angry. Go on." 

"No person has ever heard, and you — ^you, Margaret Hill — ^you would 
not tell?" 

"No, dear." 

"Killamah is not an Indian. Her mother was half-breed, her father a 
Nehalem. Sixteen times since the birth of Killamah the wild geese have 
come to the marsh and have flown northward. When I was a child my 
father taught me to shoot and to paddle. He showed me how to trap the 
great bear and to steal softly, softly up to the deer. Killamah was his only 
child — she was wild and free. She knew no ways of a house. In the sum- 
mer nights she slept under the starlights, and she killed and ate and gathered 
berries when she was hungry. She swam in the deep, cool streams in the 
forest when the sun was hot, and no one asked where Killamah had been. 

"And then — then the mother went out over the trail, out over Necamie — 
for provisions, she said, but my father had plenty. She went to a city — 
Astoria you call it. And then when she came back my father drove her 
away. She went back to the man. He was white. 


''And my father and Killamah hunted and fished. But the big fire 
burned the forest, and he had to work for the company. He worked in the 
mill. There was a woman there — she cooked their food. She was white — 
ugh! — ^white, with fair hair and little blue eyes. She was fat and red — 
ugh! — and her voice it was harsh like the marsh crane. And one day she 
made my father marry her. She told my father that she would cook for him 
and earn money — and — ^and he married her. 

**She hated Killamah. She beat Killamah, and cut her hair, and made her 
cook, and take care of the baby. And Killamah ran away. Then my father 
was sick — he wasted away, and Killamah went back to him. My father died. 

**The woman beat Killamah — ^because there was not food for me and 
her baby too. And she put this here with a hot iron when she was angry." 

I shuddered. There was a long white scar on her breast. 

**And Killamah ran away again. It was winter and the Great Whiteness 
was deep — deep. I went to the mill people. They had known my father. 
They laughed at me. They yelled, *Qet out of here — ^you half-breed. Go to 
your Injuns — they'll help you.' 

**The Indians of Nehalem lived on the other side of the Great Canyon. 
I knew not the Indians. They had disowned my father, because he had mar- 
ried my mother. But Killamah went to them. Sometimes she crawled like 
the great bear, on her hands and knees. Sometimes she walked. Killamah 's 
moccasins were cTit — when Killamah stepped, there was red on the Great 
Whiteness. For three days Killamah crawled and walked, and then she saw 
the Indians. They were poor — ^the women were cold and sick, and there 
was little food. But Killamah Vanted just one buckskin to wrap ai*ound 
her and die. 

*'They set the dogs on her and cried * Shame! — a half-breed! She is half- 
white ! Go back to your white people ! Go back to the company — mongrel, 
cur, half-breed 1' 

''Killamah didn't hear it all — she crawled away and lay on the Great 
Whiteness — ^the cold wind was freezing — the hungry wolves — and the big, 
still night—" 

The girl trembled as I put my arm around her. Then, after a silence, 
she went on: 

**When Killamah was nearly dead she opened her eyes — and there was 
some one kneeling beside her. Ah! — Margaret Hill — he was so strong and 
beautiful. He was a Nehalem. He was dark and deep-chested like my 
father. And he lifted me, like a baby in his strong arms — and we glided 
along on his great snow shoes. Then, Margaret Hill, he took me to a cabin — 
far, far up in the hills. 

** Killamah wasn't beautiful then, but he loved her. And my father's 
people — his people — said they would kill him if he came back. And his 
father, the great chief, told none to speak his name, or they, too, would die 
as he had — ^to them. But Sea Cliff only laughed at them. He would take 
me in his arms and say, 'KUlamah, little one, my people are the Sea. They 


storm, and beat their tempests against the Sea Cliff, but the Sea Cliff stands 
silent and stern and unmoved. And Killamah is the dancing waterfall, which 
dashes over the cold rock and makes it beautiful — beautiful.* 

**The Great Whiteness melted, and went back to the river and to the sea. 
And when the summer came, and the violets grew in front of the cabin, the 
Sea Wind was borne to us. Softly, gently, she cauie, and Sea Cliff and Kil- 
lamah were happy. '* 

The girl had raised her head and was sitting upright, her face turned 
toward the evening sky. A long shaft of amber twilight fell full on her 
face, on the low broad forehead and the eyes with their dark lashes; on the 
beautifully moulded chin and the curved lips, which could express the depths 
and heights of her passion. The night wind blew the short skirt in graceful 
folds about the lithe, young limbs. The buckskin mackinaw, the bared feet 
and ankles, the long coil of dark hair, stamped themselves indelibly upon 
my memory. At last she turned her face away. The tears which she could 
not shed were in her voice. 

** Margaret Hill — the great fire came again, and burned the cabin and 
the forest — and — Sea Cliff.'' 

'*Yes, Killamah.'' 

**I cannot go — go on.'* 

**And Sea Cliff died?'' 


'*Did — did he go away, little one?" 

**No." I could scarcely hear the faint whisper. At last: "He — he 
worked in the mill, and a — a log fell on ];iim. They sent him away from me — 
to the hospital — ^you call it. A moon ago, and he has not come back. The 
Sea Wind dies, and Sea Clift* is alone — alone. Killamah cannot go to him — 
she knows not where — she has no money. It may be that Sea Cliff has 
weakened and fallen, and the Sea rages over him. Killamah does not know." 

There was a long, long silence. The twilight deepened. The girl at 
my side did not move. 

Then suddenly she jumped to her feet — ^her chin uplifted, her eyes 
strained towards the bay. There was a faint sound which suggested the 
rhythm of a paddle — a quick step sounded on the shore. 

A tall, dark youth, with flashing eyes and quivering lips, thrust me aside 
and strained the girl to his heart — ** Killamah — Opitsah." 

The sweetest word in all the Chinook is **Opitsah" — sweetheart. 

I strolled off toward the bay and bowed my head. The starlit water, the 
sweet incense of the firs, the wind, the magic of the night had never failed 
before, but I could not raise my head. 

And, finally, when I went back through the trees Killamah and Sea Cliff 
still sat on the doorstep. 

'*And did the little one think Sea Cliff would not come back? But he 
is here, Killamah. The Sea Cliff did not fall though the Sea beat against it — 
and the Sea Wind, opitsah, will come back to us, as she came before, Kil- 
lamah. ' ' 



1 T. MARY'S ACADEMY AND COLLEGE enjoys the distinction of being the 
first educational institution founded under Catholic auHpicea in the State of 
Hs&dB of tbe community, then laboring in Montreal, appreciating 
the needs and poasibilities of this Nortbneet, sent twelve of their SiMera 
to Portland in 1859, and Oi-tober 21 saw the modest beginning of St. Mary's 
Notvrithstanding tbe countless obstacles encountered in the upbuilding of an edu- 
cational institution in a new and thinly populated country, the Sisters met all difficulties 
with courage, industry, and perseverance, and to-day St. Mary's Adacemy, with its 
splendid buildings, extensive equipment, well-trained faculty, and three huntlred students, 
stanils as a glorious monument to the seal, wisdom, and sacrifices of the noble religious. 

.—jEk.. .. .->■ 

2 iJSUmk%^ 


W\\ . 






Nor has its character as a Catholic instttntion ever narrowed its sphere of useful- 
ness. During the torty-flve years which have passed since its foundation it has received 
students of all denomi nation a; and graduates, Don-Catholi^^a aa well aa Catholics, havo 
shared the refinement and culture which it baa ever labored to impart. 

Manif sating the vigorous life of a well -organized institution, it gained the con- 
fidence of the state authorities, with the result that St. Mary's is qualified to confer 
collegiate degrees and academic honors; successful examination before the state board 
entitles her students to state certificates. 

The past history of St. Mary's Academy presages splendid achievements for the 
future. Having served the cauae of education faithfully and well for nearly half a 
century, the hope ia indeed well grounded that, aa in the paat, so also in tbe future, she 
wilt ever prove herself a true and valiant "Alma Mater" to the young women of the 
West, R. Q. T. 

66 SOirVfiirift Ot WSStEftN WOMfiN 

Ezra and Lucy Taft Fisher 


Y parents, Ezra Fisher (born January 6, 1800) and Lucy Taft (born March 21, 
1805,) were natives of Wendell, Franklin County, Mass. They were married 
at Wendell, February 7, 1830. 

Ezra Fisher was a descendant, in the seventh generation, of Anthony 

and Mary Fierke Fisher, of the parish of Syleham, County Suffolk, England. 

Anthony, their second son, came to New England in the ship Bose, June 26, 

1637, and through this line we trace our ancestry. We have no early record of the Taft 


My father, when eighteen years of age, accepted the tenets of the Bapticrt faith, and 
soon began fitting himself for the ministry. Lack of means and a severe illness conspired 
to hinder his progress, but he took the classical course at Amherst, supplementing that with 
theological studies at Newton. 

His first two pastorates were at Cambridge and Springfield, Vt. During the pas- 
torate at Springfield he received and baptized eighty converts. 

In November, 1832, the American Baptist Home Missionary Society commissioned 
Bev. Ezra Fisher to take up mission work at Indianapolis, Ind. There, at Quincy, 111.; 
Davenport and Muscatine, in the then Territory of Iowa, and lastly at Bock Island, HI., 
he prosecuted hia work of organizing and strengthening churches and building meeting 
houses. His services in that rapidly developing section of the Middle West covered a 
period of about twelve years. 

Sent as missionaries to Oregon, he and Bev. Hezekiah Johnson, on May 20, 1845, 
began the journey across the wilderness which lay between them and the goal of their 
desires. For mutual safety some fifty families traveled in company. After enduring 
many privations, the two missionaries reached the point on the Columbia Biver where 
now stands the city of The Dalles. While camped in that vicinity my father preached to 
his first Oregon audience. 

At the cascades of the Columbia the flatboat upon which the two families depended 
for their transportation, was lost in the attempt to shoot the rapids. Left without the means 
of continuing their journey, two men were sent to Dr. McLoughlin, asking help. He sent 
a batteau to the Lower Cascades, and in that all were brought to the Willamette Valley. 

Deacon D. T. Lenox, who came to Oregon in 1843, had sent his son, Edward, to pilot 
my father to Tualatin (then called Tuality) Plains. Mr. Lenox 's family of ten lived in a 
two-room log cabin, that had a small addition on one end. A widow occupied the smaU 
room. One of the principal rooms 'was partially vacated for my father 's use, and De- 
cember 22, 1845, we (six) went into winter quarters there. All cooking was done by the 
open fire. Boiled wheat was our staple article of diet. 

During that winter my father taught a school. In the spring of 1846 he spent some 
weeks traveling in the interests of the denomination. He served a few months as pastor 
of the West Union Church, but soon removed to Astoria. Old residents of Astoria tell 
that he erected there a house built of clapboards, all of which were split from the trunk 
of one fir tree. At Astoria he organized and superintended a Sunday school, preaching 
also on Sundays. 

The first day school for the children of the pioneer settlers on Clatsop Plains was 
taught by my eldest sister, L. J. G. Fisher, during the winter of 1846-47, and early in 1847 
my father removed to Clatsop Plains. There he built a house for school and church pur- 


posea During his stay there he 'maintained preaching and Sunday school services, my 
sister continuing to teach the day school. 

In the spring of 1849 my father, feeling hampered in his work by lack of means, 
joined the number of goldseekers who were flocking to California.. He realized there his 
modest expectations, and soon returned to his family. 

In the fall of 1849 he removed to Oregon City, and with my sister for his assistant 
for two years taught the school that was being carried on in the little Baptist meeting- 
house. In 1851 he was appointed exploring agent for the Home Mission Society. My 
mother was ill able to assume the added responsibilties imposed by her husband's frequent 
absences from home; but she bore this, as .all other trials, with rare Christian fortitude. 
We hold our mother's memory sacred, not alone because she was our mother, but also on 
account of her gentle, self-sacrificing life. I cannot remember ever hearing her speak an , 
unkind word. January 20, 1854, she was taken from us. 

On June 27, 1854, my father married Mrs. Amelia Millard, a pioneer of 1851. She 
conscientiously discharged toward his children the duties of a mother, and endeared herself 
to alL 

In 1856, my father, finding his health much affected by exposure, ceased to act as 
exploring agent. During his four years' service in that capacity, he penetrated almost 
every sparsely settled section of the Willamette and Bogue Biver Valleys, preaching and 
organizing churches and Sunday schools among the pioneer settlers. 

From November, 1856, to about 1870, he served weak churches near Sodaville and 
Washington Butte, Linn County, and at The Dalles, Wasco County, supporting his family 
mostly upon the proceeds of dairy, nursery and garden, working often sixteen hours on 
w^k days and preaching and teaching in schoolhouse or courthouse on Sundays. 

When about seventy years old he removed to the neighborhood of San Diego, Cal., 
hoping to end his days in that equable climate; but a year later was persuaded to return 
to The Dalles to fill the pastorate of that church, for which he had previously done so 
much. After returning to Wasco County he was elected superintendent of the public 
schools, adding this to his other responsibilities. 

In the discharge of his duties as school superintendent he contracted the disease 
that proved fatal, November 1, 1874. Throughout his life he had conscientiously striven 
to perform his whole duty toward his fellow-men and his God. At his death he was hon- 
ored by all who knew him. 


Established in 1859. 

Capital, $250,000. 

Responsibility, $5,000,000. 

Transacts a general banking business. 

Gives prompt attention to collections. 

Interest paid on time deposits. 


Dame Nature's Monument 

NE of the most wonderful miracles that Nature ever wrought is 
to be seen in the Thunder AFountain crold region. State of Idaho. 
This curious freak consists of a rough shaft, composed of boulders 
and gravel towering seventy feet high. It tapers slightly and is 
crowned by a huge rock, whose weight is estimated approximately 
at fifty tons. This remarkable formation is undoubtedly the result of cen- 
turies of erosion, and the process is still in operation. The space of time 
required to erode the earth and rocks from this seventy-foot monument may 
be only faintly realized when it is considered that there are full grown trees 
near the shaft. 

O Nature, ever strange in mood! 
Why rearest thou this noble «haft 
In mountains' deep retreat? 
Wouldst thou no other eyes. 
Save the bright stars above, 
Should thy rare monument behold? 
Dost thou no other praises seek 
Than that the winged warblers give, 
Or rattling thunder peals aloft 
In language of the gods? 

M. 0. D. 

**The Two Islands" 

R. THOMAS CONDON,' the geologist, an^ the most noted man of 
science the Northwest can claim as her very own, has given to the 
world an invaluable contribution, **The Two Islands.'' This book, 
explicit in detail and so simple in construction that it is within 
the grasp of a child's mind, is yet so rich in scientific lore and so 
deep in research that a sage may peruse its pages with profit. 

Dr. Condon is at home in this work, for the book is a recital of his own 
study of the field. In this Northwest, the home of **The Two Islands,*' he 
has faithfully labored for half a century. Digging deep into the earth, he has 
uncovered its story and opened its pages that all may read. Included in this 
exhaustless library is also a record of the vegetable and the animal kingdoms 
as they appeared in the different stages of the formation of the earth 's crust. 

Through explorations and excavations, he brought to light, in the John 
Day country ,in Eastern Oregon, fossil beds of vast extent and of inestimable 
value to science. He was first to find, near The Dalles, on the Columbia, a 
fossil of the earliest prehistoric horse. This little creature was but eighteen 
inches high. Now, although past 80 years of age, Dr. Condon still tells the 
interesting story of this land so rich in geological treasure. 

Wherever The Souvenir goes it gladly bears this testimony to the work of 
our honored and beloved citizen, and happily calls the attention of its readers 
to his book, ''The Two Islands." M. 0. D. 


Sealth and Angeline 

By MISS E. I. DENNY, of Seattle 

CCUSTOMED as we are to hear these two famous names prefixed 
by **old/' it may require a little effort to think of them as once 
having been young, 

'*In a far-off time, 
That golden mist of distance doth enfolden, 
They were in their prime." 

In such a time Sealth was a young **tyee'' of the Soljampsh Indians of 
Puget Sound, possessed of a vigorous physique, a keen eye, an unerring hand. 
In common with other Indian lads, he had learned wood, water and hunting 
craft. He became an important figure in his world of wild nature and wild 
men. As time went on he married, obtained slaves, became rich, a **hyas 
tyee*' (big chief). Sealth had more than one wife, and three sons and five 
daughters. Schweabe, a tall Soljampsh chief, was Sealth 's father. Wood- 
sholitza, a Duwampsh woman, was his mother. Of them but little is known. 
In his dealings with the white race. Chief Sealth was just, peaceable and 
generous. He was known to the pioneers as the chief of a number of tribes, 
and as exercising considerable influence, mainly by his oratory. When the 
roving bands drew up their long, dark canoes to the pebbled beach, Sealth 's 
majestic voice rang out in power and convincing argument on the listening 
ears of warrior braves gathered about the council fire. He was not a great 
fighter, although he made several war expeditions upon his enemies in which 
he was successful. 

During the Indian war of 1855-6 Sealth was friendly to the whites, and 
counseled his people to keep the peace. 

The pioneers modified the name of Sealth to Seattle, generally speaking 
of him as "Old Seattle." The honor and esteem in which he was held found 
expression in the naming of the newly platted **town'' of Seattle in 1852. 

Chief Sealth, baptized Noah Sealth, died and was buried at Port Madison 
reservation, being of the (supposed) age of 80 years. A beautiful monument 
of Italian marble, provided by A. A. Denny and other prominent pioneers of 
Seattle, marks his resting place. 

Of Chief Sealth 's descendants, his daughter, Ka-ki-is-il-ma, called Angeline 
by the whites, is the best known. Her mother was the first wife of Sealth. 
There is only a meager account of her mother, who must have died some time 
previous to the coming of the white people. And the grown-up young Ka-ki- 
is-il-ma, with smooth brown cheeks, round limbs, bright, full eyes, abundant 
hair, sound white teeth; how different from the one we have known! 
Wrinkled, leathery, lame, poor old Angeline! 

Do-kub-kun, the Skagit chief, came from the northward, to place the 
courtship poles against her father's wigwam at Sma-qua-mox (Alki Point) on 


a mild September day^ ankuti (long ago). Sealth consented, for what price, 
if any, we know not. She stepped, as a princess would, into the big canoe of 
the "tyee" from the Skagit and went a proud and willing bride to dwell with 
his tribe for a time. Doubtless she wore, as she described to the writer, her 
newest robe of deerskin and collar of shells. Left a widow (**Taliska"), a 
Duwampsh chief took her to wife, and he in turn departed to the spirit land. 
Her two daughters, Che-wat-tum, or ** Betsy'' and *' Mamie," were married 
to white men. 

Unlike her father, Sealth, who remained quietly on the reservation 
allotted to him, Angeline persisted in living near the white people in Seattle. 
For a long time in her old age she lived in a little shack on the water front 
with Joe Poster, her grandson. She was a Catholic, and a good woman ac- 
cording to her light. She worked for white people until too old, and was 
then provided for by the pioneers. I believe neither she nor Sealth ever 
partook of the white man's intoxicants; the natives never made an alcoholic 

Angeline died on May 31, 1896, probably near 90 years of age. She was 
buried with honors by the pioneers and others, reposing in a canoe-shaped 
cofiin as though voyaging to unknown shores. Rev. X. Prefontaine conducted 
the services, which were attended by a great concourse of white people. 
According to a wish she had expressed, she was buried near her old pioneer 
friends in Lakeview cemetery, Seattle, and the children of the city of Seattle 
placed a stone at her grave. 

Angeline was industrious and honest ; showed courage and determination ; 
had affection for her children; had faith; said she **knew God saw her all 
the time," and in failing years that she never lay down to sleep without saying 
her prayers. '*For," said she, **I might die in the night." 



The Allen Preparatory School, established three years ago, has de- 
servedly won a place among the academies and college preparatory schools 
of the state. The best advantages are here offered to earnest students pre- 
paring for college, and also to those who do not wish to fit for college, but 
who desire a thorough course of study and advanced work in special branches. 
Classes in grammar school studies are formed at the beginning of each term 
and are under the charge of competent instructors. These classes cover the 
essential work of the eighth and ninth grades of the public schools. The 
aim of the school, as set forth in the catalogue, is **to teach pupils how to 
study, to help them to gain a mastery over self, and to develop character." 
A faculty has been selected, each member of which is in entire sympathy with 
this aim, and the school is characteristic for a high sense of honor among 
its students, and for the harmony and good-feeling between teacher and pupil, 
and among the pupils themselves. The school building, located at the comer 
of Sixth and Main streets, Portland, Oregon, has recently been enlarged to 
accommodate the largely increased attendance. School opens September 19, 
and the school year closes June 23, 1905. 


Pioneering in Legislative Halls 

HE FIRST APPEARANCE before a legislative assembly by official 
invitation in any part of the Pacific Northwest, of which the com- 
piler hereof can find a record, occurred in the autumn of 1871, in 
the capita] city of Olympia, Washington Territory, when Abigail 
Scott Duniway, accompanied by Susan B. Anthony, was graciously 
accorded a hearing by invitation of a joint session of the two houses in advo- 
cacy of the enfranchisement of women. The addresses of these famous leaders 
attracted wide attention, but failed to secure the legislation desired, though 
they opened the way for subsequent action. 

In the month of September, 1872, Mrs. Duniway, being clothed with dis- 
cretionary power by the executive committee of the Oregon State Woman 
Suffrage Association, visited the Oregon legislature and began a peaceful 
struggle for the enfranchisement of the women of Oregon, of which the com- 
piler cannot do better than to quote from her personal narrative (see History 
of Woman Suffrage, Vol. Ill, p. 770). Mrs. Duniway says: *'My first ex- 
periences at the capital city were especially trying. I spent two days among: 
my acquaintances in Salem in a vain attempt to find a woman who was ready 
or willing to accompany me to the state house. All were anxious that I 
should go, but each was afraid to offend her husband, or make herself con- 
spicuous by going herself. Finally, when I had despaired of finding company 
and had nerved myself to go alone, Mrs. (afterwards Doctor) Marj^ P. Saw- 
telle volunteered to stand by me, and together we entered the domain, hitherto 
considered sacred to the aristocracy of sex, and took seats in the lobby, our 
hearts beating audibly. Hon. Joseph Engle, perceiving the innovation, at once 
arose, and after a complimentary speech, in which he was pleased to recognize 
my position as a journalist, moved that I (as editor of the New Northwest) 
be invited to a seat within the bar and provided with table and stationery, as 
were other members of the profession. The motion carried with only two or 
three dissenting votes; and from that time forward the way was open for 
women to compete with men, on equal terms', for all minor positions in both 
branches of the legislature — a condition they have not been slow to avail 
themselves of, scores of them thronging the capitol in later years and holding 
valuable clerkships, many of them sneering, the while, at the efforts of those 
who had opened the way for them to be there at all.*' 

Continuing her narrative, Mrs. Duniway says: '*In September of 1878 
I was again at my post circulating my New Northwest among the law-makers. 
An opportunity was given me at this session to make an extended argument 
before a joint session of the two houses, which occupied an hour in delivery, 
and was accorded profound attention. 

**I was much opposed to the growing desire of the legislature to shirk 
its responsibility upon the voters at large by submitting to them a proposed 


coBstitntional amendment to enfranchise women. The constitution nowhere 
prohibits women from voting, and I labored to show that all we need is a 
declaratory act extending to us the elective franchise under the existing 
fundamental law. Dr. Mary A. Thompson followed in a forcible speech, * 
and was courteously received. 

**When the legislature met in 1880 it was decided by the Woman Suffrage 
Association that I should try to 'raise the blockade' caused by the failure of 
our attempt to induce the legislature to take the responsibility of the initiative 
by returning to our original work for amending the state constitution. Pur- 
suant to this decision a resolution was offered in the senate by Hon. C. W. 
Pulton, and in the house by Hon. Lee Laughlin, which, after considerable 
discussion pro and con, in which I was graciously invited to participate on 
the floor of both houses, was passed by a two-thirds majority. 

"In the autumn of 1881 the legislature of Washington met in Olympia 
one afternoon to listen to arguments from Hon. William H. White and myself 
in advocacy of an equal suffrage bill. The bill passed the house on the fol- 
lowing day by a majority of two, but was defeated in the council by a 
majority of two, thus showing that the vote would have been a tie taken 
under the joint ballot rule. 

** Returning to Oregon I renewed the contest in our home assembly, and 
in the autumn of 1882 we were all gratified by the passage of the pending 
constitutional amendment by a very nearly unanimous vote of both houses. 
In the autumn of 1883 I was again at Olympia in the interest of an equal 
suffrage bill. This bill, which had been prepared by Professor William H. 
Roberts, passed the house early in the session, but the assembly had nearly 
completed its deliberations before final action was reached in the council. The 
matter had been thoroughly canvassed in the council, and no member offered 
a word for or against its adoption. The deathly stillness of the chamber 
was broken only by the clerk's call of the roll and the firm responses of the 
*ayes* and *noes,* and was carried by a majority of one." (For further par- 
ticulars see Woman Suffrage History, Vols. IH and IV. Ed.) 

The territorial legislature of Idaho was addressed by Mrs. Duniway in 
behalf of a bill to enfranchise women in 1887, and in 1889 she appeared before 
the constitutional convention at Boise in behalf of an equal suffrage plank 
in the state constitution. A large majority of delegates in the convention 
favored the measure, and pledged it their support in the near future. In 
1893 Mrs. Rebecca Mitchell appeared before the Idaho state legislative as- 
sembly in behalf of an equal suffrage bill, which was defeated by two votes. 

Under the able leadership of Dr. Annice F. Jeffreys, a joint resolution was 
proposed for submitting the question to the electors of Oregon, and passed 
in the legislative assembly of 1895 by a practically unanimous vote. But, 
as the solons of the legislature fell to quarreling among themselves when 
they met in 1897, and failed to organize for business, the question went over 
till the assembly met in 1899, when the action of the assembly of 1895 was 
promptly ratified. M. 0, D. 



The Home Life of Eva Emery Dye 

J EAR and far has radiated the (genius of Oregon's gifted author, 
Eva Emery Dye — even to lands beyond the seas. Wherever her 
books are read, the charm of the spirit that enlivens every page is 
felt; but within her home in Oregon City, overlooking the Wil- 
lamette, beams the eflfulgenee of mother love and wifely devotion. 
The world has the author, but the home holds the wife and mother. Out 
from this realm, hallowed by love and made merry by the prattle and song 
of children, have come two of the most widely read books the Oregon Country 
has produced. These books have brought before a remote public the early 



heroes of the West. The author has painted these heroes in the coloring 
of her rich imagination^ and adorned with grace of expression the life history 
of those who first broke the silence of the wilderness with the heraldry of 

The influence of the author's personality directs in a measure the reader's 
trend of thought. Happy is it if the written page has embalmed the senti- 
ments of truth and of right; more important far is the spirit that dominates 
the home, for wider into the world reach the waves it sets in motion. The 
sweet home life of Eva Emer}'^ Dye will continue to live in the lives of her 
children. To the world it affords the testimony that women, who would 
send abroad a message and earn undying fame, need not divorce themselves 
from home life nor avoid that most sacred function, motherhood, but through 
the faithful discharge of these high offices gain a fullness of soul that may 
enkindle in the minds of their readers aspirations for higher and holier 
living. M. 0. D. 

In the Very Early Days of Oregon 

Before the finding of gold in California money was very scarce. The 
little that was brought in by the immigrants was quickly spent for the family 
and the farm. 

My mother's dress supply after the long journey was very limited. One 
day a neighbor came to her for advice about some sewing. Mother was 
busy over the wash tub, and the neighbor offered to exchange work. The 
washing was soon out to dry — but not on clothes lines. No, no, that would 
have been a luxury — but on the fence around the house and on every bush 
and brier near. Among the garments hung out was mother's dress, the 
only one besides what she wore. The family cow was near, and before it 
was noticed she had chewed the dress beyond repair. I think it was pieces 
of this dress that were afterwards used as binding for the spelling books 
that we had in our first Oregon school. 

Mother was at first in despair — ^no money, nothing to sell, and Oregon 
City sixteen miles away through an unbroken wilderness. But, oh! those 
pioneer women, how full of resources they were! There stood the ever- 
ready ash hopper, without which no family was equipped for living. They 
were soon at work leaching the ashes for lye, and the soap kettle was boiling. 
Each had a bucket of soap, and in the early morning they mounted their 
horses and holding their bucket of soap in front of them were off for Oregon 
City to exchange it for at least mother's first Oregon dress. What the neigh- 
bor got I do not know. M. H. D'A. 



ST. HELEN'S HALL wna eBtablisbed b^ the Bight Rev. B. Wiatar Morris, 
D. D., and first opened in September. 1SG9. The KTOund upoD which the Bchool 
was built WHS seiMirod through the liberality of Mr, John Wolfe, of New York, 
and his daughter, Misa Catherine Wolfe, the property conaiating of three- 
fourths of a block on Fourth atreet, between Madiaoo and Jeffsmon. la 
1869 this wan considered the beat part of the city for private residencea. 
During the first year, no twit hat and ing the difficulty of inBufi!icient room and a amall staff 
of teachers, the number of pupils eteodilj increased to one hundred and thirty-two. This 
Buccese was largely due to the character and ability of Mias Mary B. Bodney, the principal. 
Trained at St. Mary'a Hal!, Burlington, the Hchool founded by Biahop G. W. Doane, of 
New Jeraey, ahe brought to Oregon that standard of Chrisiian education tor which St. 
Mary'a was noted. In. the courae of study, the choice of teirt books, the arrangement of 
the acbool day, and the beauty and dignity of the chapel aervices, St. Helen's Hall followed 
cloaely the traditiona of St. Mary's, and the graduatea of both schools were known by tb« 
same charactcriatics, cultivation of mind, refinement of mannera, and love for the church 
under whoae protecting care they had passed their happy school days. 

St. Helen's Hall continued its work in the original building until the year 1890, 
when the property was sold to the City of Portland for the utie of the city hall. On 
^une 0, 1S90, the cornerstone of the present building was laid, and on February Zi, 1S91, 


the. school was moved to ita new home, a handsome edifice of brick and stone, whose cross- 
topped turret is known far and near. Here Miaa Rodney continued her work until re- 
moved by death April 15, 1896. In September, 1806, Mias Eleanor Tebbetta, Ph. D., became 
principal, and remained so for eight years. In 1904, by request of the board of trustees, 
the Sistera of St. John Baptist (founded at Clewer, England, 1S51, and affiliated in this 
country in 1881) ondertook the charge of the school, with the hope that God may bless 
their endeavor for its prosperity and increased usefulness. 

St. Helen's Hall aims to provide the best facilities for complete education during 
the whole of a girl 'e school life. A little maiden of five may begin in the kindergarten, 
where the work is chiefly well directed play, and ascend by gradual steps throngh 
primary, intermediate and academic departments, till in due time she receives a diploma 
B9 the suitable reward of her years of interesting and well-ordered study. If after 
graduation ahe chooses to return for advanced work equivalent to the first and second 
years of college, or for a special courae in music, art, or lileratnre, St. Helen's Hall will 
atill supply all she needs. It ia emphatically a Girls' School, for girls of all age^ tem- 
peraments and desires, and as such has always held a unique poaition in the Northwest 
Xo education is complete which neglects the highest part of human nature, its apiritnal 
side. This is met at St. Helen's Hall by the beautiful services of the Book of Common 
Prayer (Episcopal), held morning and evening in the chapel, and by such religious In- 
structions as shall help the pupils to become Christian women. 

BOuvENia or webtebn womeh 

Bishop B. Wistar Morris 


fHE Right Rev. Benjamm Wistar Morris, D. D., S. T. D., the second 
missionary bishop of Oregon, was bom in WilUboro, Pennsylvania, 
May 30, 1819. He was graduated from the Veil Theological Sem- 
inary, New York, in 1846, was ordained deacon in St. Philip's 
Church, Philadelphia, on the 28th of June, in the same year the 
Right Rev. Alonzo Porter, D. D., and presbyter in St. Matthew's Church, San- 
biiry, Pennsylvania, on the 27th of April, 1847, by the same prelate. The bishop 



received his degree of S. T. D. from Columbia College, New York, and that of 
D. D. from the University of Pennsylvania. He was rector of St. Matthews' 
Church, Sanbury, for four years, and of St. David's for six years, when he was 
appointed assistant minister of St. Luke's Church at Germantown, where he 
remained until his election to the episcopate during the session of the general 
convention October, 1868. He was consecrated missionary bishop of Oregon 
and Washington Territory, December 3, 1868, in St. Luke's Church, Philadel- 
phia, by the Right Rev. Alfred Lee, bishop of Delaware, assisted by Bishops 


Odenheimer, Vail, Clarkson, Randall and Terfoot, not one of whom is living. 
Bishop Morris, with his family, sailed from New York on the 21st of 
April, 1869, reaching Portland June 2. In 1880 the bishop was relieved from 
the oversight of Washington Territory. In 1889 Oregon became a diocese, 
and at the first convention held Bishop Morris was elected diocesan bishop. 
His administration has been marked by wisdom, zeal, energy and consecration 
to the arduous task set before him. With clear business foresight, in the 
early years of his episcopate he secured property at a reasonable cost and 
founded churches and other institutions whose benefits will endure — ^a lasting 
memorial to their worthy founder. In his 86th year he still attends to the 
duties of his oflBce, preaching once and often twice on the Lord's day. He 
spends a portion of each day at his desk, and daily receives many callers. 
Thus he still labors with unabated devotion, the glory of a noble life about him. 


Studios and Oi&ce — Second Floor Brooke Building, Washington and Seventh Streets — 

Portland, Oregon 

The Oregon Conservatory of Music is one of the best equipped schools of 
music on the Pacific Coast. 

The departments are under select instructors, specialists who have devoted 
their lives to the study and practice of their particular work, and who are not 
only graduates, but teachers in every sense of the word. 

Under the able direction of L. H. Hurlburt Edwards, the 0. C. M. olBfers 
students seeking a thorough musical education all the advantages of Eastern 
and European conservatories. 

The departments of instruction embrace piano, pipe organ, organ, voice, 
violin, guitar, orchestral, band and all stringed instruments, and the kinder- 
garten music method, which means so much to beginners. 

The departments of art, elocution and languages are thoroughly taught in 
private or class lessons. 

The conservatory benefits include rudiments, theory, harmony, chorus 
and history of music classes. 

Quarterly and yearly examinations required for certificates and diplomas. 

Our motto, **The best is none to good" — our colors, purple and gold. 

If you seek a thorough musical education write for prospectus and other in- 
formation. Address 

P. S. — Students' home and lecture hall. College and Twelfth. 


This is the age of electricity. To move with it, to catch step and fall into line, is 
the business of the hour. In the great Northwest, toward which so many faces are now 
set, some important work has already been done, and much larger development is in con- 

The Pacific Electric Company, 94 First street, Portland, Oregon, is a reliable place 
to seek information. Mr. B. H. Tate, the manager, has had sixteen years' practical ex- 
perience, and associated with him are other experts in their lines. Orders for electrical 
supplies, machinery or installations entrusted to them will be sure of prompt and thorough 


Woman's Work^ Among thejFriends or Quakers 

By MRS. ELIZABETH A. T. WHITE, Woodburn. Or. 

OMAN, in the Friends' Church, stands the equal with man, and is 
not barred from any oflSce or any work of the church. 

The late Rebecca Lewis, wife of Judge D. C. Lewis, and mother 
of Mrs. P. J. Mann, was the first Friend to come to Oregon. Port- 
land was then but a small village. Rebecca Lewis formed a wide 
acquaintance with people of all churches. Everywhere she wab known as 
the ** Quaker Lady.'' She never varied from **thee and thou'' when speak- 
ing to others, and always spoke of her husband as ** David Lewis." For 
many years she was the only Friend in the state, but she was ever loyal to 
her faith, and rejoiced when other Friends came. 

Mary B. Pinkham, of Iowa, a minister of the gospel, when almost 70 
years of age, received a call of God to come to this far West and look after 
Friends who had migrated thither. She and her husband came and spent 
two years in Oregon. She soon found Rebecca Lewis, and exclaimed: **The 
Lord sent me across the continent to see thee." 

Mrs. Pinkham held gospel meetings in various places; she visited the 
sick, whether their malady was in mind or in body, and was a blessing alike 
to rich and poor. She felt that the Lord bade her open the work of Friends 
in Oregon, and that others would follow her to carry it out. Long before 
coming here she had seen, as in a vision, Friends' meetings established. 

Li October, 1874, Rebecca Clawson, from Lidiana, also a minister of the 
gospel, and a cousin of Rebecca Lewis, came to Oregon with her daughter. 
The wonderful meeting in far-away Oregon of the two Rebeccas, who had not 
met since girlhood, was a theme of which they never tired. 

Rebecca Clawson resided in Oregon nine years, and was often engaged 
m missionary work. She preached the gospel as the Lord directed, and way 
was opened through invitations from the pastors of the churches. She also 
held services in country school houses. The chaplain of the state prison in- 
vited her to go with him and fill his place in preaching to the prisoners. It 
was evidently of the Lord. She went at different times. Many of her 
listeners were melted to tears, and there were definite conversions of men 
who, when freed, lived changed lives, and thanked God that the prisoners 
had been remembered. 

Mrs. Clawson was deeply interested in temperance work, as indeed most 
of the women Friends in Oregon have been. She organized the Portland 
and the Albany Unions of the W. C. T. U., and when the first state convention 
met in Oregon under the leadership of Frances E. Willard she was elected 
delegate to the national convention to be held in Philadelphia. She made 



ready to go, visited all her children, and officiated at the marriage of a grand" 
daughter, Mrs. M. A. Ogden, of Portland. Finally taking leave of all, she 
journeyed eastward. The effort proved too great for her strength, and she 
passed peacefully away from earth at the home of her nephew in Indianapolis, 

Frances E. Willard said of her to Mrs. White: "Pew have been blessed 
with such a mother as was the dear soul whom you have lost and Heaven has 
gained. Instead of her wise counsel for us, we held memorial services for 

Jane E. Weedeo, a member of Friends' Church of Ohio, was at one time 
city missionary for Portland. She seemed to know just where to find the 
worthy poor. She practiced rigid economy that she might give from her 
own purse. She also gave of her time and strength freely. She, too, was a 
zealous advocate of temperance. Her iutelleot was keen and bright, and her 
addresses were listened to with deep interest. 

The home and foreign missionary fields are receiving earnest attention 
from the women Friends in Oregon. They have supplied two or three mis- 
sionaries in Alaska, and the one at Kohe Island ia very prosperous. 

As a result of these pioneer labors a large yearly meeting has been estab- 
lished at Newberg, Oregon ; also Pacific College at the same place. 


Mrs. Emiline Himes 


'BS. EMILINE HIMES was born in Le Boy, Bradford County, Pennsylvania, 
December 27, 1821. Her maiden name was Holcombe, her father, Hugh Hol- 
combe, descending from Thomas Holcombe, who came from England to Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1860, on the ship ''Mary and John." He removed from 
Connecticut to Pennsylvania in the year 1796, and settled in Brad- 
ford County, which was on the extreme frontier at that time. It is a family tradi- 
tion that Mrs. Himes' mother, Prudence Bailey, descended from one of the company 
which made tea in Boston Harbor. Mrs. Himes was married to Tyrus Himes in Bradford 
County, May 1, 1843, and to this union eight children were born, five boys and three 
girls, four in the East, two boys and two girltf, the first boy, George H., in Pennsylvania, 
May 18, 1844, and the other three children in Illinois, to which state the family removed 
in the autumn of 1846, settling at Lafayette, Stark County. In 1838 Mr. Himes became 
imbued with the idea of going to Oregon as a result of hearing Rev. Samuel Parker, D. D., 
of Ithaca, N. Y., lecture on Oregon in Bradford County, Pa., in 1835. Mr. Himes really 
started for Oregon in 1846, but illness caused him to stop in Illinois. 

On March 21, 1853, the westward march was again begun, and after a trying jour- 
ney of seven months the family arrived at Olympia in what is now Thurston County, 
Washington. At the date of starting on this journey Mrs. Himes had a little daughter 
six months old. This child had beautiful auburn hair, and this fact caused the Indians 
through whose country the "Oregon trail'' passed to observe her very closely — ^in fact, 
the Indians at different times wanted to buy the child, and one chief on the western slope 
of the Blue Mountains offered some hundreds of ponies for her. As may be imagined, this 
desire upon the part of the Indians caused considerable apprehension at different timed 
on the part of my mother. 

Our train was the first to enter the Puget Sound Basin direct, and the experiences 
of that expedition over a most rugged road, with scanty food much of the time during 
the month we were in the mountains, were most trying to all, but particularly to mothers 
of little children. The little ones when hungry could not underhand why food was not 
forthcoming. After arriving at the settlements on Puget Sound and securing shelter in 
the rudest of log cabins for the first winter, my father was compelled to be away from 
home a great deal in order to earn funds to keep the food supply going. Everything was 
high, and mother patched clothing for the children and herself and also spun yarn from 
wool that she got on i^ares from neighbors, made socks and stockings for a family of 
six, and in addition knit at least three pairs of men's socks a week to sell, besides mak- 
ing garments whenever father could get ahead enough to get a piece of clothing stuff. 
Her life was a strenuous one, indeed. My father was a very indu^rious man, so between 
the two the family began to get on, and at the end of two years the way seemed clear 
for a little relief from the incessant toil which had been the lot of both parents; and 
the children large enough to work had their allotted tasks, in October, 1855, the Yakima 
Indian war of 1855-56 broke out, and continued until September, 1856. During this time 
the family removed four times from one blockhouse or stockade to another, all the while 
apprehensive lest the Indians would make an attack. During those perilous months Mrs. 
Himes bravely bore her part without complaint, and never gave in any public way the 
slightest hint that she was at all disturbed. 

One of the hardest experiences she had to undergo frequently for months at a time 
was the lack of religious privileges. For the first five years in the Puget Sound Basin 
there were but few religious services of any kind oftener than once in three months, and 


these were held in a log schoolhouse, with a puncheon floor, three miles distant. When 
an appointment was made eAio always attended with my father, the children accompanying, 
all walking, as the family had no team. Social intercourse was sc^nt, aside from the In- 
dians, which she could not tolerate on account of their uncleanly habits; yet she always 
treated them kindly and honestly; and that is probably the reason why the family was 
not cut off, for it certainly was in great danger a number of timeil Occasionally she would 
visit a neighbor, particularly in case of sickness — there was but one physician in the coun- 
try, and he five miles away, and his lowest fee for a country visit was $10.00 — ^walking 
five to ten miletf, and would knit socks while she was walking. My father died April 22, 
1879, and mother managed the farm five years with the aid of two sons in their teens. 
At length she sold it, and in 1885 returned on a visit to her girlhood home in Pennsyl- 
vania, after an absence of thirty-nine years. That was a red-letter experience in her 
life; but she could not be prevailed upon to stay in the East, and so, after a visit of six 
months, returned to the Pacific Coast, better satisfied than ever with it, and took up ac- 
customed round of duties, mainly in keeping house for an unmarried son. While thus 
engaged she sui^ained a serious accident, the breaking of the right hip, and for three and 
a half years thereafter she was compelled to remain in bed, as the broken limb never 
united. During these grievous years her sturdy character shone more brightly than ever. 
Once i^he said to me, ''I do not know why 1 am permitted to live; I am of no use to 
anybody whatever — ^just a burden." I repeated her ezpresiAon to another old lady, and 
she said: *^1 know why your mother is permitted to live. It is for her good example, her 
cheerfulness under trying circumstances, and the excellent counsel she always has ready 
for those in trouble. She never complains, but alwayer makes the best of everything. The 
influence for good and right living emanating from your mother's bedside is not second 
to any church influence in this community.'' 

This tribute from an intimate friend of my mother who had known her for more 
than forty years amid almost every trial that can be conceived of, was certainly deeply 
appreciated by me. But the end came finally on October 28, 1898, and one of the best of 
mothers passed on to her reward beyond, leaving behind her six children, twenty grand- 
children, and three great-grandchildren. 

Among the many good lessons she taught her children none stand out more prom- 
inently than the precept which was a part of her daily life — * * That if one could not speak 
well of another, it was best not to speak at all." Whatever she might have thought of a 
neighbor, or any other person, she was never known to speak disparagingly of them. 

Reminiscence of Mrs. Julia A. Wilcox (a pioneer of 1845), widow of Ralph 
Wilcox, who was the first school-teacher in Portland, Oregon: '*In crossing 
the plains on Meek's cut-oflf we were without water for thirty-six hours. The 
cattle had disappeared ; they were found by a spring where they had found the 
water. A great many of the company were taken sick and died from eating 
the cattle that had been driven so far. Food was scarce and the cattle had to 
be killed and eaten. In some places the mountains were so steep that the 
wagons nearly stood on ends ; the oxen were taken off the wagons and the men 
had to hold on to the back of the wagons to keep them from tipping. An 
[ndian swam the Deschutes River and carried a rope across. The wagon beds 
were fastened to the rope, and the people and provisions were carried across 
this way." 

Dr. Robert Newell in 1840 brought the first wagon over the mountains 
from Fort Hall and left it at Whitman's Mission. 


Julia (West) Lindsley 


HE life of a saintly woman is generally lacking in the spectacular features 
which attract the historian, but it is none the less the chief cornerertone in 
the foundation work of family and state, without which any nation must 
in time topple to its destruction. 

As the wife of Bev. A. L. Lindsley, D. D., LL. D., the subject of this 

— sketch was enabled to exert a powerful influence for good, though silently 

and to the careless observer perhaps imperceptibly. Dr. Lindsley was ifor over eighteen 
years the pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Portland, coming to it in 1868. 

Julia West was born in New York City in 1827. Christian parents surrounded her 
by the best influences. As a little child she chose reading rather than play, and later 
graduated with high honor from Butger's Female Institute, having received the previous 
year the gold medal for proficiency in composition. In 1846 Miss West's marriage took 
place, and her first training in pioneer missionary work was received in what was then 
the frontier — the Territory of Wisconsin. Privations and hardships were endured 
patiently in the happy home where love reigned and Christian usefulness was the ruling 
motive of life. 

After five laborious years, in which her husband's health broke down, they re- 
moved to South Salem, N. Y., to recuperate — a charming country retreat where sixteen 
happy years were spent. Unremitting pastoral work, to which was added the arduous 
care of a private school within their own home, filled this period. Health and strength 
and training were here received for the responsibilities awaiting them on the Pacific 
Slope. After repeated calls from the Portland Church, Dr. Lindsley brought his family to 
Oregon, and here Mrs. Lindsley shared most faithfully and unselfishly in pastoral and 
humanitarian work. 

Largely through her efforts a foreign missionary society was organized, which, 
there is good reason to believe, was the pioneer on this coast. An immense amount of 
correspondence and unwavering faith were required to create and hold the interest, but 
at last these early efforts were crowned with success, and in after years the work ex- 
panded into the Woman 's North Pacific Board of Missions, an organization now com- 
priaing a very large number of the Presbyterian women of the Northwest, and one which 
has accomplished untold good in spreading Christianity and education in the dark places 
of our own and other countries. Mrs. Lindsley is a life member and an officer of this 
board. The quarter centennial celebration of the organization of the first missionary 
society was held in 1896, and was a marked event in <£urch circles. 

Mrs. Lindsley also joined heartily with her husband in his efforts for the spiritual 
advancement of the whole of the Northwest. The Indians of several tribes were included 
in their broadly human sympathies, and efforts were made to introduce schools among 
the Chinese, at one time a little class for them being held nightly in the pastor's home. 

In 1877 Dr. Lindsley introduced Protestant missions into our new possessions to 
the far North, then recently purchased by Secretary Seward. Of these it has been as 
concisely ag truthfully stated, ^^ Alaska Missions were born in Dr. Lindsley 's study." 

In the very voluminous correspondence which these labors of love involved, and 
in missionary journeys, as well as in incessant parish visiting, Mrs. Lindsley bore an 
important part. Into the haven of her well-ordered Christian home were welcomed as 
guests not only many congenial friends of the clergy and laity, but also many a way- 
worn traveler who had faltered or fallen in the race, and to whom such encouragement 
was more than healing balm. 

After eighteen years of service in the Portland church, whose remarkable influence 
and expansion are widely known, Dr. Lindsley accepted a professorship in the San Fran- 
cisco Theological Seminary in 1886. In the leisure obtained by freedom from the duties 
of a pastor's wife, Mrs. Lindsley continued to prosecute with zeal and vigor her mis- 
sionary work. She became a life member and an officer of the Occidental Board of 
Foreign Missions, whose headquarters are in San Francisco, and she took an active part in 
other philanthropic measures. 

Since Dr. Lindsley 's death, in 1891, Mrs. Lindsley has made her home in Port- 
land among her children and a host of warm and appreciative friends of long years' 


Washington Women^s Clubs 

By JENETTE S. MOORE, Olympia, Wash. 

HE position which Washington occupies among the states of the 
Northwest with regard to its status in the aifairs of Woman's 
Clubs is rather a distinguished one. She was the first to recogjiize 
the importance of club organization and the benefits derived 
from it. 

The club movement in Washington proved no exception to the proverb, 
''Great things from small beginnings grow," as it owes its origin to one small 
club of nine members who met for mutual improvement along literary and 
domestic lines and to encourage a fraternal spirit among women. This club, 
the ** Woman's Club of Olympia," was organized March 10, 1883, at the home 
of Edmund Sylvester, the founder of Olympia. The idea of forming the club 
originated with Miss Mary E. Shelton, who had lately returned from San 
Francisco, where a club had just been organized. Mrs. A. H. H. Stuart was 
the first president. Being a woman of executive ability, skilled in parlia- 
mentary usage, she was a great aid in the development of the club and in mak- 
ing it a permanent institution. For some time the Woman's Club of Olympia 
had the field to itself. 

One club came into existence in '89. The Classic Culture Club of Seattle, 
and in the early '90s many more sprang into life. Now there is hardly a 
town of any considerable size but has its club or clubs. Women throughout 
the state were eager to join in a movement so widely beneficial. 

The Woman's Club of Olympia, being the pioneer, was very conservative. 
It was an experiment, and until the experimental stage was passed it hesi- 
tated about taking up subjects outside of what might be classed literary, 
artistic, musical or domestic. 

As the number of clubs grew the question of forming a state federation 
began to be agitated. Many of the clubs had joined the general federation, 
and a meeting was held in Tacoma in the autumn of 1896 to consider the 
advisability of forming a state organization. The idea met with approval, 
and twenty-two clubs formed the nucleus of a federation that has grown into 
large proportions and has become a recognized power in the state. The 
first meeting was held the following June in Olympia. The first to serve as 
president of the state federation was Mrs. Amy P. Stacy, of the Oloha Club 
of Tacoma, who by vote of the federation bears the honored title of ** Federa- 
tion Mother." 

Seattle, Tacoma and Spokane have each a city federation, and several 
other cities are preparing to federate. Two clubs m Washington own their 
club houses, the Woman's Club of Olympia and the P. L. F. Club of Bellingham. 


All oyer the state the woman's clubs have had an uplifting influence 
upon their surroundings. 

The Civic Improvement Clubs and the Floral Associations have helped to 
beautify the cities; the Educational Clubs have worked in education; the 
Art Clubs have helped to develop a love of the beautiful; the Musical Clubs 
have done much to raise the standard of music. 

Although no club for purely social purposes has been organized, each 
club has more or less social life connected with the regular club work. Through 
the efforts of the clubs fine lecturers, musicians and dramatic readers have 
been brought to the state and exhibits have been held and floral displays 
made ; in addition prizes have been given for the neatest gardens, public parks 
improved; historical buildings preserved, traveling libraries bought and put 
into circulation, school and city libraries increased; and indeed this influence 
has reached out in every direction. 

Woman's Clubs of Washington have done much to awaken an interest 
in the history of the state, and have made valuable collections of data, relics 
and photographs. They have encouraged legislation in behalf of philanthropic 
movements, notably with regard to juvenile offenders ; they have brought the 
subject of domestic science to the attention it deserves. 

The National Federation recognized Washington last May at the meet- 
ing in St. Louis by electing Dr. Sarah Kendall, of Seattle, auditor. It is an 
honor appreciated not only by Dr. Kendall's friends, but by all the club women. 


The Behnke-Walker Business College is an institution of which the City of Portland 
can well feel proud. It was founded only five year^ ago. To-day it is classed as the 
leading institution of its kind in this part of the country. Within the past four months 
they have enrolled more than 300 pupils, this number being only 100 less than during 
the twelve months previous. 

The equipment is of the latest, complete in every detail. They have left no stone 
unturned for the benefit of their pupils. The business practice department has ten offices: 
Betail, commission, real estate, insurance, bank, etc., each having a different set of books. 
In this way the pupils become familiar with all phases of bookkeeping, from the simplest 
to the most complicated transactions. 

Thi9 college possesses the unique feature of being the only college in the United 
States that equips each of its offices with a typewriter. The bank is equipped with an 
adding machine, the only one used by a business college west of the Mississippi River. 

The business and shorthand departments are connected by a private telephone. The 
bunness department is under the direct supervision of Mr. I. M. Walker, one of the 
proprietors. The shorthand department is in charge of Mr. H. W. Behnke, president of 
the eollege. 

The Pemin system of shorthand is taught. It employs no shading, no position, 
has only a few word signs, and connective vowels follow consonants in their natural 
order as in longhand. This system can be learned in one-third the time required to 
learn the Pitman, Graham or Munson. The standard for graduation is 125 words per 
minute for five consecutive minutes. 

The college is in session throughout the entire year. A night school is also con- 
ducted for those unable to attend during the day. 


St. Peters Church and its Ivy -Clad Tower 


I T. PETER'S CHURCH in Tacoma had its beginning thirty years 
ago, in midsummer o£ 1873. Tacoma was then a town of 200 
people. The support of the church was derived almost entirely 
from the sawmill and the ships and logging camps connected with it. 
Washington then was included within Oregon in one diocese. 
Right E#v, B. Wistar Morris was bishop. Zealous for the church and confident 
of the great destiny of Tacoma, he was soon on the ground. He secured 
the lot since occupied by the church from Mr. Edward S. Smith, and assigned 
to the new field the Bev, Charles B. Bonnell, for some time prior of Salem. 
The necessary lumber and other ma- 
terial were obtained and men put to 
work building the church. The Protes- 
tant Episcopals were brought together 
and organized, the first board of vestry 
being Messrs. George E. Atkinson, C. 
H. Botsford, T. Pitt Cooke and Charles 
Proscb. The hoHse was quickly fin- 
ished, plain, unplastered and unpainted, 
at a cost of $300. Its furnishings, 
meager and economical, accorded with 
the style and manner of the building. 
August 10 the services of God began 
within its walls, directed by Mr. Bon- 
nell and participated in by an inter- 
ested congregation. 

At the suggestion of Mr. Charles B. 
Wright, the Rev. Mr. Davies, now 
bishop of the diocese of Philadelphia, 
who was then the rector of St. Peter's 
Church, of Philadelphia, laid before St. 
Peter's Sunday School of that eity the advisability of presenting a bell to 
St. Peter's, the pioneer church of Tacoma. Sufficient money was at once sub- 
scribed by the members of the Sunday school, the bell purchased and shipped 
by the way of Cape Horn and was received here at Tacoma October 12, 1874, 
making necessary a tower. This was soon provided by the chopping off of 
a large tree standing close to the front of the building. There, forty-eight 
ifeet above ground, the bell was placed upon a tower erected by the hand of 
nature and estimated to be more than 300 years old, and was rung the first 
time for chtirch services by Captain John H. Smith, of the United States Navy, 


sonvEHiE or wbstbbii wohbn 


October 18, 1874. And there it is now, announcing in clear and ringing tones . 
the serriceB and calling to them, the congregation. 

Planting of the Ivy. — Ivy was planted by Mrs. Jane A, Walters and 
other church women at the foot of the stump, or tower, which has since grown 
to the very top and covered every inch of the surface, the chief credit of which 
belongs to Mrs. Walters, who not only planted the ivy, but watered and cared 
for it until it had gotten suiBcient start to take care of itself. This 300-year- 
old tower is, as all know, one of the features of Tacoma most interesting to 
tourists, and one in which our own citizens take much pride. 



If, after reading a short time, your eyes begin to trouble yon, why not 
have this ailment relieved, by properly fitted glasses ! We have an expert op- 
tician, and do our own grinding. Satisfaction guaranteed. 

Manufacturing Jewelers and Opticians, 

284 Washington St., Portland, Oregon. 


My Mother*s Flower Garden 



Y mother, Mary Cooper Matheny, spent her childhood and youth 
under the vine-clad arbors of an old Kentucky home, flowers, 
vines and trees her constant companions. In preparing to come 
westward she carefully gathered seeds from flowers and shrubs. 
These she brought across the plains. Mother's seed sack occupied 
the safest comer in wagon or tent. After leaving the wagons at The Dalles, 
she carried her seed sack at the horn of her saddle through the Cascade Moun- 
tains to Oregon City, where the company arrived November 8, 1843. 

In the spring of '44 my mother planted some of her seeds on a plot of 
ground near the present site of the town of Hillsboro. Later in the season 
my father bought a farm on the Willamette River just opposite the old Meth- 
odist Mission, then in ruins. To this place mother removed her flowers, 
and also planted other seeds. The result exceeded expectations; her garden 
became a dream of beauty. All the sweet old-fashioned favorites vied with 
each other in the blending of brilliant hues; throngs of gaily tinted butterflies 
and emerald and bronze humming birds reveled in the perfume-laden breath 
of pinks and roses. 

Of the pinks she had a fine collection. The second year, when they be- 
gan to bloom, she carefully culled the plants, saving only the most perfect. 
This she continued to do until her pinks in size and beauty were almost equal 
to the modern carnation. Also she rescued the old ** Mission Rose" from the 
ruins of the mission, where it was having a hard fight to maintain its standard 
over native brush and bramble, as the only living representative of the civilized 
home. It blooms to-day in my own garden. 

Among her collection were seeds of the old English sweet brier, prized 
for the beauty and fragrance of its foliage as well as for its dainty flowers 
and scarlet berries. A beautiful hedge shrub in some countries, but kissed 
by the bright sun and warm rains of Oregon, its elsewhere gentle nature has 
developed qualities most aggressive. Borne on the wings of bird and bee, it 
now presses its long prickly branches into the depths of our forests and 
along our lanes from the Willamette to the Pacific. 

My mother was justly proud of her garden, for it was the first real flower 
garden in all this Northwest country. Many a plant and seed has been car- 
ried from it to brighten other homes throughout the Willamette Valley. 
Travelers always stopped to admire mother's flowers and eui^age seeds for 
next year's planting, which she gave a free-will offering. To-day a scion 
from the old historic ** Mission Rose" sheds its fragrance upon her narrow 
bed in the cemetery near her home on the banks of the Willamette. 


Nomenclature of Northwest Mountains 


HEBE are three principal mountain ranges in Oregon. The first is 
the Coast Range, taking its name from the fact that it runs parallel 
with the Pacific Coast. The average height is about 3000 feet. 
The highest point is ** Mary's Peak/' which has an altitude of a 
little over 5000 feet. The name was derived from the fact that a 
lady named Mrs. Mary Lloyd, an immigrant of 1845, was the first white woman 
to cross a stream entering the Willamette River from the west, a little south 
of the present city of Corvallis. This led to naming the stream after her — 
Mary's River; and as it heads in the mountain above alluded to, that was 
called ** Mary's Peak." The Indian name is **Chin-tim-i-ni." 

The second, the Cascade Range^ is a continuation northward of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains of California. In early days, probably in 1832, it was 
called the ** President's Range," it is believed, by Hall J. Kelley. Mr. 
Kelley was bom in Maine, but in early life removed to Massachusetts, was 
educated there and followed the vocation of teaching. He was the first 
person to agitate the question of colonizing Oregon, beginning his efforts as 
early as 1820, that year marking the date when the ** American Society for 
Encouraging the Settlement of the Oregon Territory' ' was organized in Boston. 

The snow-capped mountains in this range are as follows, beginning just 
below the 42d parallel: 

'*Mt. Shasta"— ''Mt. Jackson," by Mr. Kelley. ** Shasta" yras the name 
of a tribe of Indians in the vicinity. 

**Mt. McLoughlin," in the Cascade Range, west of Klamath Lake, was 
named after Dr. John McLoughlin, the chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany in Oregon from 1824 to 1842, as early as 1838, by the British fur traders. 
The mountain bore this honored name, almost without interruption, imtil 
1863 ; then, at the instance of a civil engineer by the name of Colonel George 
H. Belden, it is believed, the moimtain began to be called **Mt. Pitt," and this 
has continued almost without interruption up to the present time. Since there 
was no historical connection between the name **Pitt" and any circumstance 
or incident in Oregon history, the writer of this sketch, after careful investiga- 
tion of all the facts bearing upon the matter, began a movement to re-establish 
the name of ** McLoughlin," and prepared resolutions setting forth the reasons 
for the proposed change, which were recently adopted by the Oregon Historical 
Society, the Oregon Legislature, the Mazamas (the Alpine Club of Oregon), 
and by the Woman's Federated Clubs of Oregon, requesting that the geo- 
graphical department of the United States at Washington give its oflBcial 

SIG. 7 


sanction to the change desired. Mr. Kelley's name for this mountain was 
"Mt. Madison." 

**Mt. Thielsen'' was named about 1875 in honor of Mr. Hans Thielsen, 
the chief engineer in constructing the Oregon & California railroad from 
Portland to the California line — ^now the Southern Pacific. Kelley called this 
"Mt. John Quincy Adams/' 

"Three Sisters," so called because of the close proximity of three snow 
peaks to each other; but the date when this group was so named, and by 
whom, I cannot give with certainty. 

"Mt. Jefferson" was named by Captain William Clark on April 3, 1806, 
in honor of President Thomas Jefferson. 

**Mt. Hood" was named by Lieutenant William Broughton. of Captain 
George Vancouver's exploring expedition, on October 29, 1792, in honor of 
Lord Hood, of the British admiralty. Mr. Kelley called this **Mt. Washing- 
ton." It was called by some of the Indian tribes **Pah-to," signifying **high 
mountain," a name, however, which it is understood applies to any high 

"Mt. St. Helens" was named by Broughton on October 20, 1792, in honor 
of the British ambassador at the Court of Spain. 

**Mt. Rainier" was named by Vancouver on May 7, 1792, after his par- 
ticular friend. Hear Admiral Rainier of the Royal Navy. It is interesting to 
note that it was upon this date that Captain Robert Gray, an American navi- 
gator, sailed into what is now called Gray's Harbor, supposing it was the 
mouth of the Columbia River. Kelley 's name for this peak was '*Mt. Harri- 

Mt. Olympia, one of the highest peaks in the Olympic Range, in Jefferson 
and Clallam Counties, Washington, was named by Captain John Meares, an 
English navigator, on July 4, 1788. This is the **Mt. Van Bnren" of Mr. 

The peak called '*Mt. Scott," near Crater Lake, was called **Mt. Mon- 
roe" by Kelley. 

**Mt. Bnker" was named by Captain George Vancouver on April 80, 1792, 
after Lieutenant Baker, one of his oflBcers, who saw it for the first time on 
that date. Mr. Kelley called this peak '*Mt. Tyler." 

**Mt. St. Elias" was named in 1741 by Vitus Beering, a Dane, selected 
by Peter the Great of Russia, because of his approved courage and nautical 
skill, to take charge of an exploring expedition. 

"Mt. Edgecumbe" was named by Captain James Cook on May 2, 1778. 

**Mt. Fairweather" was named by Captain Cook on May 3, 1778. 

The third range is called the '*Blue Mountains," because of the bluish ap- 
pearance when looked at from a distance, caused by the pine-covered sum- 
mits. While large bodies of snow lie upon these mountains the greater por- 
tion of the year, it has no perpetual snow peaks. 


A Grandmother's Story of Elarly Days in Washington 

(Author unknown) 

N the spring of '53 I started with friends across the plains, a long, 
tedious trip, but by no means uninteresting to a girl of 20. October 
22 we arrived at Mound Prairie, in Thurston County. We moved 
out of our wagons into a bachelor's cabin of one roora for ten. 
We partitioned it off with wagon covei's into several apartments. 
The first party I attended was during the holidays of '54. There were 
six besides the host and hostess. The supper consisted of beans, ginger 
bread and coffee, eaten in a little side kitchen without anv floor. Our host 
and hostess of that evening are now living in Portland, Oregon, and are very 
wealthy society people. 

I was told that if I would get married I would get 180 acres of land, so, 
of course, I got married and got ray land. 

Wheat was $5 a bushel, and everything else in proportion, but we never 
went hungry. On our farm we built a neat log cabin. We had a bed, stove 
and a few dishes, but that was all. There was no furniture to be had. ATy 
husband made a table of split boards, and I went to work making stools, 
which I cushioned with moss and covered with oil calico. I made a rocking 
chair out of a sugar barrel, cushioned and covered in the same way. Cup- 
boards and other conveniences 1 also manufactured. T was very proud of 
niy new home, so simple and plain. In it I entertained all kinds of people, 
rich and poor, preachers and lawyers, when 1 had but two rooms to cook, 
eat and sleep in. 

The spring of '55 the Indians east of the Cascades broke out, so the 
neighbors decided to build a fort. By the time it was finished word came 
that the Indians were coming on this side of the mountains, and we hastened 
to the fort, where we stayed sixteen months. There were thirty families, 
which included all the people from Centralia to Bush Prairie. While in the 
bastion we had preaching and Sunday school every Sunday. We lived as 
close together as we could, there being just a partition between us, and none 
had a falling out. I suppose we were afraid the Indians would kill us, and 
we vranted to die in peace with all mankind. As soon as the war was over 
we returned to our homes. 

We had grand, good times in those days. We did not have many neigh- 
bors, but what we did have were good and kind. 

The summer of '58 we concluded to go to Gray's Harbor. We sold all 
our household goods except what could be put into canoes. It took two 
weeks to go to Olympia and return. 

The first quarterly meeting held in our county was at Wynoochi by 
Elder Doane and the pastor, Rev. Franklin. There were only four communi- 
cants, but we had a good meeting. We drew very near to God that day. 


The first Fourth of July celebration in the county was on the slough just 
above Cosmopolis. There were about twenty persons in all. We took our bas- 
kets and babies and boarded a large scow with Old Glory floating on the 
breeze. The eagle screamed and we sang patriotic songs and had such a good, 
jolly time. The next celebration was at Father Smith's. I shall never forget 
that Fourth. Early in the morning Mrs. Scammon and children, Mother 
Byles, myself and children got into a canoe with an Indian to row, and started 
up the river to the Melville Slough. There we got out and carried our babies, 
with the help of the Indian. We would take one at a time part of the way, 
put it down and go back for another. The bushes were so thick we aovld 
get but one through at a time. I had four children and Mrs. Scammon had 
four. Finally we reached Father Smith's. 

We had a sumptuous dinner with a great big cake baked in a milk pan, 
with frosting and red candy over it. It was made by Father Smith. We 
had strawberries of his own raising. The table was set under the oak trees, 
for the house was too small for us all to get in at once. John Medcalf came 
riding an ox with the Stars and Stripes afloat from its great horns and John 
blowing a horn. There was a fiddle, and John played while Father Smith 
and John Brady danced. We sang patriotic songs and squealed the eagle 
hoarse, but we had no smoke, as there was no powder. Those were memorable 
days. How happy we were, for we had everything in common. Late in 
the afternoon all went their own way and took to the brush to find their 
canoes. When we got to the slough, behold the tide was out." "Tide waits 
for no man." We had to sit down and wait for the return tide. . 

The first election was at Westport. I told my husband I wished to at- 
tend, so we started very early in the morning with Messrs. Arch, Campbell, 
Karr, Milroy and Young, myself, husband and babies in a large sailboat. 
We had smooth sailing until we got opposite James' Rock, when the tide left 
us. We would have to wait for the tide, so I said I had rather wade out the 
half mile to James' cabin than to sit there for six hours. So the men took a 
baby apiece and started for shore. My husband and Mr. Karr wished to 
carry me, but I prefered to wade, so took their arms and stepped out, some- 
times knee deep and sometimes waist deep, but I made it. On reaching the 
house the diflBculty was in getting dry clothes — Mother James and her 
daughter being very small and I very tall. But I got into Mother James' 
clothes, and I'd give a dollar if I had had my picture taken. My dress just 
came to my knees, and the stockings just touched the hem of my dress. 
After we got through laughing I put my dress out to dry. The boys all sat 
in the sun till they dried off. When the tide returned we started for the 
polls to vote, but after all they would not let me vote. Don't tell me that 
women can't go to the polls. 

The spring of '60 my husband went to the Salmon River mines, having 
lost all we had. I was left all alone with my children, without a neighbor 
nearer than ten miles except Edward Campbell and Mr. Karr. 

The first time I was at Montesano I came up the river in a sailboat. 



Mother Medcalf and her son John met me at the river with an ox cart. John 
walked in the mud up to his knees and we had to lie down in the cart to keep 
the brush from pulling our heads off. 

After my husband returned from the mines we concluded to take a 
homestead up the river. My husband and his brother-in-law had been 
** baching" in a little log cabin on the place. When my husband came to 
visit me in our old home I said I was going up with him. He told me the 
house was too small. **That makes no difference/' I said; ** where you live, I 
can live, and 1 am going,*' and 1 did. So on the 3d day of July we reached 
our new home. We put our things in the house, ate our dinner, then my 
husband returned to bring the cattle. I was left alone in the woods for 
three days, and a never-to-be-forgotten experience I had, with no lock on the 
door and holes in the chimney. Darkness coming on, I put the children to 
bed and sat down to read a chapter in the Bible. All at once the wild cats 
began to screech, the owls to whoo-whoo, and the wolves to howl. I jumped 
into bed almost frightened to death. I believe that was the only time in my 
life I wished to die. I just asked the Lord to take me and the dear little 
ones straight up to heaven before we were all eaten up by wild animals. 
Away in the night something began to pat, pat on the Hoor and make a 
squeaking noise. I just lay still, afraid to breathe. Next morning I looked 
to 'see if my hair was white. The next night 1 had the same experience. 
On the third day — Simday morning — I looked out and saw a young man and 
a young woman coming. 1 said, * * The Lord surely sent you, * ' and I told them 
of my experience of the two nights before. 

I proposed to sell my gold watch and chain for lumber to build a house. 
My husband seriously objected, but I said I would never wear a gold watch 
and chain and have no house. Soon after a man came along who had a saw- 
mill, and I asked him if he would give we lumber to build a house for my 
watch. He said he would. We built a house and started to make a home, and 
were happy working and waiting. 

People say to me, **What did you do for a doctor?*' We worked hard, 
ate hearty, and slept sound. When we felt indisposed we took a tea, made 
of wild cherry and dogwood bark, and rested a while. The first doctor that 
came to the county was Dr. Casto. Then the people began to get sick, and 
they have wanted a doctor ever since. 

I love pioneering. I look back to those days as being my happiest days. 
When I hear the newcomers growling about the old mossbacks not doing so- 
and-so I feel like Josiah Allen's wife: **I want to set down on 'em." I 
don't know how they would have gotten here if it were not for the moss- 
backs. God bless the old pioneers, and may they all go to heaven when they 
die. There are few of them left to tell the story. Some of us are left to see 
the wilderness blossom as the rose. I know it is evening time with me, my 
work is almost done. I am watching and waiting. 



R. -r. W. HILL 
preparatory training 
Yale in the cIrhs of 
contuineil, ai 
.-111. H. Hunt, 
MiDJBter to Venezuela ; H' 


of Footer's Federal Pleadin 

liani in WeBtport, Conn., May 28, 1856. He received bii 
Scllceli arhool, Norwalk, Con. TTe was Rraduated from 
8, now famnns hei-Hime of the number of diHtinguislied 
IK whom were Hon. Wm. H. Taft, Serretary of War; 
vil C.overnnr of I'ort.. Bico; Hon. Herbert W, Bowen, 
H. Van Biiren. Tniteil Stsled Consul to Nire; Roger 

n<l • 

To Saptemher of 1878, Dr. Hill rame lo Poitland to take charge of the Bishop Scott 
Academy, at thot time the only private school for boys in thia new and undeveloped 
ecluntry. Portland was then a citj' of about 18,00') inhabitants. Schools were few in 
number, and the standard of education was by no means high. Only those who labored 
. earnestlr to lietter it know of the bitter disap[>ointmentn endured and the overwhelming 
ilisi-nuraeements experieneeil. Good teachers could scarcely be secured at any price. 
Dr. Hill was, however, particularly fortunate in this respect; not only did he seenre good 
teachers, hut he kept 
them with him for many 
years. Being naturally 
fond of boys, taetful, 
and an excellent disci- 
plinurian, under hin able 
mana(;einent as lessee 
and principal, the insti- 
tution grew rapidly, be- 
coming widely known 
throughout the Nortb- 

During the twcnty- 
three years that Dr. Hill 
was connected with the 
nishup Scott Academy, 
more than 1,200 boys 
were under his care. 
Many of these com- 
pleted their education 
within the walls of the 
ol'l si'hool; others, desir- 
ing (college training, 

pHSsed from the school to the higher institutions of le 
Berkeley. Stanfor.I and others. To-day (henc "boys, 
west, oci-npy prwmiueut plnres in the business world, 
lillle of their success lo thc'r early training receive.) 
vision of I)r. Hill. There is a saying among them, 
l:oy." Many of these men have sous whoni they sent 
Academy while Dr. Hill was still there 
established the Hill Military Academy. 

Untiring devotion to his life-work has characterized Dr. Hill thi 
and successful career. He has overcome many of the problen 
of the educator, and is, in fact, recognized aa one of the lead; 
''oast. His aim has ever been threefold, to train the boy 
Believing that this can best be accomplished in a private 
he bas devoted his life to the realization of 

■ning, Tak, Harvard, West Point, 

scattered throuKl>o<it the North- 
^ne and all, they attribute not a 
n the old school under the super- 
Once Dr. Hill's boy, always his 
> be educated in the Bishop Scott 
later placed them under his care when be 

ighout bis long 

which beset the pathway 

: educators on the Pacific 

itally, morally and physically. 

hool with military discipline, 

Utarv school. 


Early Portland Schools 


HE first school in this city was that of Dr. Ralph Wilcox, opened 
in the fall of 1847 in a small frame building on Front and Taylor 
streets. It is recorded that a dozen children comprised the first 
attendance. This first educational venture evidently lasted only 
a few months, for in April or May of the succeeding year Miss 
Julia A. Carter, who had recently arrived with her family from Ohio, was 
conducting a school in a log cabin. The marriage soon after of Portland's 
first woman teacher to Joseph L. Smith left the settlement without a teacher, 
and the advent of number three was awaited. He promptly appeared in the 
person of Aaron J. Hyde, of whom it is related that in the winter of 1848-9 
he taught a school in what was known as the cooper's shop. It was located 
on a lot which, as was commonly reported, a former owner had bought for 
the consideration of two pups. 

The temple of learning in the future Northwestern metropolis seems never 
to have lacked a priest. Before the close of 1850 no fewei* than seven in- 
structors had come and gone in rapid succession. Like everything else on 
the coast, in those early days tuition was somewhat dear, $10 per quarter being 
the regulation fee. 

Though teachers were changing frequently, it was evidently the deter- 
mination of the pioneers that the new town should have a permanent school. 
The historian relates that the fourth to wield the wand of office, Rev. Horace 
Lyman, opened a school late in December, 1849, in a frame structure built 
by Colonel William King for church and school purposes. It was located on 
the west side of First street, two doors north of Oak. On this building was 
placed a bell, which now hangs in the steeple of the Taylor-Street M. E. 
Church. The following year the school, under the fifth teacher, Cyrus A. 
Reed, had attained an average attendance of sixty-two pupils. The town 
had come to stay. 

Sylvester Pennoyer, afterwards governor of Oregon, was, in 1855, ap- 
pointed teacher of the Oak-street school, while the other was in charge of 
J. M. Keller. Rev. N. F. Boyakin, a Baptist clergyman, at this juncture held 
the post of county school superintendent. Among Governor Pennoyer 's in? 
teresting recollections of those primitive days is the fact that when the school 
board formally conducted him to the home of the superintendent for an 
examination as to his professional ability, they found that official with sleeves 
rolled up to his shoulders, bravely wrestling with the family washing. Wip- 
ing the soapsuds off his arms, he ''examined" the candidate, pronounced him 
quite satisfactory, and the future head of the state was forthwith installed 
in the Oak-street school. 



Not satisfied with merely achieving the establishment of schools, how- 
ever, the promoters of education began to move in the direction of buildings 
owned by the city instead of renting. The County of Multnomah had been 
organized in December, 1855, and in May of the following year a committee 
of citizens was appointed to ascertain the cost of different sites for school 
grounds. A report was shortly submitted in favor of the James Field block, 
on which the Portland Hotel now stands, and the suggestion meeting with 
approval, it was purchased for $1,000. Here a two-story structure, known 
as the Central School, was erected at an expenditure of $6,000. On May 17, 
1858, it was formally opened, with L. L. Terwilliger principal and Mrs. Mary 
J. Hensill and Owen Connelly assistants. In July following the names of 
288 pupils were on the rolls. In 1883 the board of directors sold the block on 
which the school stood for $75,000. 


In 1849 Rev. James Harvey Wilbur, D. D., located in Portland. A pioneer 
of the highest type, he was destined to leave a lasting impress educationally 
as well as religiously upon the whole region. Physically strong, himself a 
competent carpenter, and possessed of unlimited energy, the erection of the 
Taylor-Street M. E. Church was his opening endeavor. With his own hands 
he felled the trees which covered the lot. Recognizing that education and the 
progress of intelligent religion are indissoluble, the church was scarcely 
finished when Mr. Wilbur set about the establishment of a denominatfonal 
school, which should be superior to anything yet attempted on the coast. 
Mechanics' wages were $12 per day and lumber $120 per thousand, but the 
realization of his project went forward with dauntless zeal, and, under the 
style and title of **The Portland Academy and Female Seminary," the building 
was opened in 1850 or 1851 at an outlay of $8,800. Mr. Buchanan was first 
placed in charge, but he was succeeded the year following by Rev. C. A. 
Kingsley and wife, who conducted it with success for eight years. Faithful 
and earnest work was done in **the academy." 


With all due deference to the academy, the founders of Portland 
became desirous of establishing free schools, similar to those of the 
Eastern states. Most prominent in the movement was the Rev. George H. 
Atkinson, who began to agitate the subject immediately after the organiza- 
tion of the territorial government August 13, 1848. Mr. Atkinson arrived in 
Oregon in June of that year, bringing with him a quantity of school books 
of the latest and best authors. Despite some opposition and after much 
discussion an organization was at last completed. The board of directors 
consisted of Anthony L. Davis, Alonzo' Leland and Reuben P. Boise. This 
board announced that John T. Outhouse **AVOuld begin a school in the school 
house next door to the City Hotel on Monday, December 15, 1851. Books to be 


used, Sandera' reader, Goodrich's geography, Thompson's arithmetic, and 
Bullion's grammar." Portland's tirst public school teacher was a young mr.n 
only 22 years old, a native of New Brunswick. The salary paid him was 
$100 per mouth. He began with twenty pupils, but so rapidly did the at- 
tendance increase that before the close of the first year an assistant was 
deemed necessary. 


This division of the city's public school system had its origin in 1869. 
In 1683 Portland's handsome High School building was projected. Its erec- 

Of.'E C ^DRTL ilA'O^MAAfJ-fl, 

5c/AX>i. 3l d 

tion occupied two years. It represents an investment, including site, of 

It can safely be asserted that no city in the Union has devoted more at- 
tention to education and achieved better results, according to its commercial 
growth and increase in population, than the City of Portland, Oregon, 


The Women Workers of the Episcopal Church 


HE Episcopal Church could hardly have found its present firm footing 
in the Pacific Coast States but for the women who helped to pio- 
neer it. Sometimes the clergyman's wife helped with a church 
school (as in Corvallis, Or.), which was to become the nucleus of a 
strong church. Latterly, the rector's wife at the All-Saints' Mis- 
sion, Portland, won the way to the hearts of the people through the kinder- 
garten attached to her own home. Often the little church building has been 
seen standing in the small country town, awaiting its rector, while its guild 
of faithful women kept alive the Sunday school for months, and their busy 
fingers worked to make all things ready against the arrival of an unknown 
but welcome rector. 

Is there a debt hanging over the church, or a deficit for the running ex- 
penses, or is there repair needed? — the Woman's Guild is every ready for the 
emergency. Their inventive irenius can always coin money by one method 
or another. 

While $750 (as the figures of Trinity.. Portland, show) seems a large sum 
for a cit}^ church, yet in the little country parish $40 or $50 represents the 
same degree of zeal and diligence. 

The Woman's Guild usually confines itself to home help. A bazaar is 
often the nest egg for a small outlying chapel, when it has to content itself 
perhaps with but a monthly service. Substantial gifts gladden the local 
hospitals at Thanksgiving and Christmas, as well as at other times. 

The "Daughters," sometimes called the ** King's Daughters." sometimes 
after their own particular church, emulate the matrons in their church min- 
istries; and, like them, not scorning the humbler work of cleaning and light- 
ing fires in God's house. They raise money, and they save money by what 
they gladly do with their own hands. They teach in the mission kinder- 
gartens, and start the children's societies in the right direction. 

The children, whether called the ** Sunbeams," the ** Young Helpers" or 
** Little Workers," piece their quilts, voting, when complete, whether the 
home hospital, or the half-frozen Alaskan Mission, is to receive them. They 
are pretty sure to wish the Arctic Mission School to have it, even if it takes 
six months to reach its destination. Each Christmas the ** Juniors" of Seattle 
(where naturally Alaskan interest is strong) send a box to the Sunday 
School of Ketchikan. The first child's cot of the Good Samaritan Hospital, 
Portland, was started in the small Sunday School of Corvallis, about twenty 
years ago. Every Christmas since the Sunday Schools throughout the state 
have contributed to this object, and there are now with Bishop Morris' help 
three or four cots in perpetuity ready to receive the tiny sufferers brought 
there for treatment. One of the children's societies worked until it had 


made $30 that a country church might have a bell in its belfry. The children 
of Grace Church, Astoria, support a scholarship (the Lottie S. Short Memorial) 
in the Tokio Divinity School, that trains any boy that wishes to become a 
minister. It is the children of the Sunday Schools that fill the Lenten and 
family boxes — ^their Easter offerings for missions amounting to hundreds of 
dollars in each diocese. From Oregon went $830 last Easter. 

The Woman's Auxiliaries, that spread like a network all over our Pacific 
states, are the most potent factors ior mission work, both at home and abroad. 
Outlying missions often in desolate localities are started and kept alive with 
its Sunday School, and often its library and reading room. In Portland 
they have a Chinese Mission for the Chinamen working in the city. 

In connection with All Saints Cathedral, Spokane, the Woman 's Auxiliary 
maintains a working girls' rest room and home as a memorial to Dean Perine, 
which they hope, under Deaconess Nosier 's efficient guidance will become 
self-supporting. In this work women of other denominations are now aiding. 
The women of East Washington have been very broad-minded in working 
with others in the Lewiston (Idaho) Public Library; likewise for the Yakima 
Hospital, and keeping up and beautifying the cemetery of Palouse, which had 
been left a forsaken field. The Church of Dayton, Wash., was largely built 
by one woman, who had worked hard to earn the money. The important 
mission to the miners at Coeur d'Alene receives the zealous support of the 
auxiliaries. In Washington they have pioneered many churches. In the case 
of Colfax money has been raised for heavy street grading, as well as church 
repairs, with no rector to encourage their hearts. 

From the oldest church school in the diocese, St. Paul's, Walla Walla, 
mothers are now scattered all over the Northwest. Wherever they are, they 
are found to be loyal workers for their beloved church. In connection with 
St. Paul's, as with the ** Annie Wright Seminary,'' the name of Mrs. Wells, 
as Miss Garretson, will be ever lovingly remembered. When the wife of 
the bishop, she was principal to St. Mary's (now Bronot Hall). For twenty- 
five years she worked untiringly for the advancement of young women. 

St. Luke's Hospital at Spokane was started and maintained for years by 
the church women. As for the Portland **Good Samaritan,"- for years the 
only Protestant Hospital on the Pacific Coast (which now ranks the third 
largest this side of Chicago), Bishop Morris says: **But for the women 
there never could have been a hospital at all." 

Idaho, with its three large Indian Reservations, Wind River, Fort Hall 
and Lemhi, naturally expends much interest on its Indians. The national 
church has sent clergymen, and the local auxiliaries **do all in their power 
to lead them to better things — these people, still ignorant and savage in great 
measure, who led the first white men over the mountains, and prepared the 
way for so many Christian homes." Bishop Funston writes further of his 
charge of the mission to the Shoshones, the friends of the great explorers. 
He says: **A boy of 16, who was, it is considered, with the party, and after- 
wards called *01d Ocean,' died at a great age, not so very long ago, at the 

• •• • • 

• • • 


Port Hall Reservation.. It is part of our woman's work to help these Indians 
to a knowledge of Jesus Christ. The Rev. St. Michael Fackler came from 
Oregon in 1864 and established the first church, which is still standing at 
Boise City. He formed the first Woman's Guild, the forerunner of our 
auxiliaries. Strange to say, some of its most Important members are still 
our most active workers in promoting the good cause among Indians and 
whites, and also in forming and encouraging like societies all over the inter- 
mountain region." 

The Woman's Auxiliary reaches out its hands to the ends of the earth, 
helping remote mission stations. Gift boxes, that find room for dolls and 
toys, are sent to Alaskan missions, visited by steamboats but once or twice 
a year. As is natural to its proximity. Western Washington shows great 
interest in this. The auxiliaries of Seattle and Tacoma sew with deft fingers 
for the mission boxes, containing, besides other things, drugs apd books. 
New mining camps, such as Tanana, etc., are not forgotten. 

Oregon sends useful reading matter to the soldiers at Manila; to the 
seamen on the broad ocean; to small reading rooms, as an antidote to the 
saloon ; and to lonely ranch men, starving for mental food. The Grace Church 
Auxiliary of Astoria supports a Bible woman in China, who goes amongst 
the women where no one else could have access. The Sisters of St. Helen's 
Hall aid the Chinese Mission of Portland, and many help with their presence 
and talents at the Seamen's Institute. Oregon supports a scholarship in the 
Beaufort (colored) School of North Carolina and in St. Mary's Hall, Shang- 
hai, where 120 native girls are educated. Eastern Washington supports two 
in the latter place. 

The women of Boise City have been very active in work for the St. 
Luke's Hospital of their city, and have made much pioneer eflPort throughout 
their sparsely settled diocese. 

Besides all the local and individual activity, the auxiliaries of the four 
dioceses subscribe about $800 annually for the general mission fund of the 
church. They never forget either to put by for the ** united offering" that 
is laid on the altar at each triennial convention. This offering amounted this 
year in Boston to the sum of $150,000, of which our four dioceses bore their 
own noble part. No wonder the following resolution was passed with 
unanimous warmth : 

** Resolved, That we heartily approve the suggestion made by one of the 
delegates at yesterday's missionary meeting (October 20) that, in view of 
the magnificent work of church women, including the raising of $150,000 by 
the Woman's Auxiliary, the Episcopal Church work should be hereafter carried 
on by men and women working together and not in separate divisions." 


Helen F. Spalding 


LIST of the educators of the state would not be complete without 
the name of Helen F. Spalding, and no record of the part that the 
women of the state have borne in its educational work would be 
complete without at least a brief mention of the part that she has 
had in it. 

Miss Spalding was born in Chelmsford, Mass., and received her first in- 
struction in the matchless public schools of that state in the days of Horace 
Mann. At an early age she began teaching. She alternated this work with 
attendance upon private schools under eminent instructors, and when about 
20 years of age she graduated at Westbrook Seminary, Maine. Upon com- 
pleting her course she was chosen head of the woman's department at West- 
brook Seminary, a position that she filled successfully and acceptably for 
six years. She went from there to Fitchburg, Mass., where for some time 
she was first assistant in the High School. On the opening of Buchtel College 
at Akron, Ohio, Miss Spalding was given the chair of English literature, a 
position which she held for three years. }Ier health becoming impaired by 
constant application to the duties of her profession, she asked and obtained 
leave of absence, and improved the opportunity thus given to visit hor 
brothers in Portland, Oregon. Finding the climate beneficial to her health, 
she later resigned the chair of literature at Buchtel Colleire and accepted a 
similar position in the Portland Iliffh School. With this work Miss Spalding 
was identified for a period of thirteen years, during which time she laid a 
shaping hand iipon the lives of hundreds of the young men and women of the 
state. For obvious reasons the true record of this endeavor must forever re- 
main unwritten except as it is recorded in the character and attainments 
of those who as the years went on passed out of school into the active duties 
and responsibilities of life. 

Careful investment of her earnings grew with the growth of the city into 
business interests that required her personal attention, and in 18 — Miss 
Spalding reluctantly resigned her position in the Portland High School and 
retired from the profession to which she had devoted so many useful years. 

Though Miss Spalding withdrew from the teachers' ranks, her active 
sympathies are still enlisted in the cause of education, and to this extent she 
has never dropped out of the work, but in a quiet, earnest, helpful way 
continues to promote its interests. A busy woman, active in good works 
and ever ready with good words, she is a dependable force in all lines in 
which true womanly endeavor is enlisted for the public weal. Active in 
the cause of liberal religion; a humanitarian who is always ready to voice 
the wrongs of the voiceless, she is passing gently down the sunset slope of 
life. And when at last its evening shadows enfold her she will gratefully 
be "remembered for what she has done." 


Woman Suffrage in Washington Territory 

Editor of the Washingrton Standard, Olympia, Wash. 

ROBABLY it was the drift of popular sentiment towards enlarging 
the sphere of American citizenship, and extending political privi- 
leges incident thereto, with special reference to the enfranchise- 
ment of the negro, which led to discussion of the propriety of ex- 
tending the ballot to the women of this country, who had so un- 
questionably earned that privilege by their aid in making the government, 
as well as promoting its welfare whenever attacked by enemies from within 
or without. This question began to be agitated immediately at the close of 
the war, during the reconstruction period, and culminated in 1868 by the 
fourteenth amendment to the constitution, defining citizenship, and in 1870 
by the fifteenth, declaring that the right to vote should not be denied, or 
abridged, on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

It was just about forty years ago that the subject of woman's enfranchise- 
ment came up as a prominent political issue in Washington Territory by 
introduction of the measure in the legislature, when that noble woman, Susan 
B. Anthony, and the no less admirably persistent advocate, Abigail Scott 
Duniway, publisher and editor of the New Northwest, appeared in the legis- 
lative halls to advocate favorable action. While their earnest and logical 
appeals had a mighty effect, both on the law-makers and their constituents, 
the time was not yet ripe for action, and the measure was defeated, with 
about an equal number of both parties — demoprats and republicans — voting 
for it. About this time, likewise, the Washington Standard, a weekly news- 
paper published at the capital, became an earnest and determined advocate of 
the ballot for women, and for eighteen years, up to the passage of the suffrage 
act, persisted in the battle for equal and exact justice to be extended to the 
better portion of mankind. 

It must be borne in mind that, fair as this proposition may seem, when 
gauged by ordinary methods of determination, there were many who were 
controlled by the most bitter prejudice, and they were not confined solely 
to the male sex. Many were the objections, mostly frivolous, but some en- 
titled to consideration, because honestly held and because, too, of the fact 
that the measure was over untried grounds; but all had to be met and 
weighed to make opinion on which the proposition depended for success. 
Some thought that woman's sphere should be confined strictly to the home; 
others thought that the feminine mind was not capable of grasping or properly 
weighing the great matters of statecraft; still others thought it would be 
demoralizing to women to go to the polls, where they were likely to be jostled 
by the low and vicious. But woman's champions met these, and many other 


objections, with a confidence that was impregnable, and, thank heaven, one 
that was fnlly justified by the subsequent trial. 

So determined became the opponents to impartial suffrage that, in 1871, 
an act was passed, and approved November 29, ''in relation to woman 
suffrage" (the title), in which it was enacted that **No female shall have the 
right of ballot, or vote, at any poll or election precinct in the territory, until 
the congress of the United States of America shall, by direct legislation upon 
the same, declare the same to be the supreme law of the land." In looking 
at the law now, with all feeling aside, one cannot refrain from an expression 
of surprise that solons of the law-giving power should have attempted such 
a futile method of stemming the tide that would inevitably overwhelm them. 
Any subsequent legislature could, of course, repeal the act which so mag- 
nanimously accorded to congress the privilege of reversing their act. It 
was probably intended to be merely an expression of the assembled law- 
makers, but it shows with what intensity it was held, and the wonderful 
change implied in passage of the measure a few years afterward. 

It was at the legislative session of 1883 that an act amending Section 
3050 of Chapter 238 of the Code of Washington Territory gave the ballot to 
women. It was simply an act to omit the word **male" in the amended 
section and provide for interpretation of the pronoun **his" and its varia- 
tions, to be construed to mean **her" as the same might require. The act 
was approved by Governor W. A. Newell November 23, 1883. It passed 
the ** council," as the upper branch of the legislature was then called, by 
a majority of one vote. It conferred absolute equality upon women as 
voters, jurors and officeholders. Under it the women voted in 1884 and 1886. 
Their influence at the ballot box contributed in no small degree to the success 
of Charles S. Voorhees as delegate to congress, representing as he did the 
interests of the people against the grasping demands of the railroads to 
augment their land grant. 

On February 3, 1887, the Territorial Supreme Court, in a decision ren- 
dered in a ** whisky case," entitled Harland v. Territory of Washington, 
by Judge George Turner, declared the act invalid, as the grand jury which 
had indicted him was partly composed of women. The concluding part of 
the decision, written by Turner and concurred in by Associate Justice Lang- 
ford, Judge Greene dissenting, was as follows : 

**If the law conferring the elective franchise on females was not a fruit 
of disobedience to the wise and salutary restraint of the organic act, as has 
been charged, and if there is a public sentiment in the territory which favors 
such a measure, the next legislature will probably re-enact it." 

Even in this utterance of an austere man can be seen respect for power 
behind the ballot, when reference is made to the possibility that ''popular 
sentiment" might finally repudiate the courtly edict. And be it noted that 
after the woman had finally lost the ballot, much of that chivalry which 
had been accorded them as voters was lost. Politicians who had lifted their 
hats to the fairer portion of humanity while the law was in effect passed 

no. 6 


them by with averted eyes, becoming literally Pharisees after the law was 

The life-line thrown out by the court was, however, justified, as the leg- 
islature a few months later re-enacted the suffrage law, with the judicially 
declared objectionable provision eliminated. In an act ** prescribing the 
qualification of voters in the Territory of Washington,** approved January 
18, 1888, appears the exact phraseology of the act amending section 3050 of 
the code, with this proviso, that ''nothing in this act shall be so construed as 
to make it lawful for women to serve as jurors." 

The act was not, however, allowed long to remain on the statute book by 
its implacable foes, acting through the Supreme Court. August 14, 1888, 
in the agreed case of Nevada M. Bloomer against the election board of a 
ward in Spokane, backed by the liquor interest, the law was finally blotted 
out of existence. It was carried up for that special purpose, and Judges 
Jones, Langford and AUyn lent themselves to the conspiracy, and they de- 
clared the term ''male inhabitant," which fixed the qualification of the first 
voters of the territory to apply to the term "citizen," as subsequently used 
in the same act, who, it declared, should be accorded the elective franchise 
at all other or subsequent elections — a forced construction to say the least. 
But it was important to have the matter settled before the territory became 
a state, and so the courts were worked "overtime" to secure that result. 
It is hardly probable that this use of the higher court to accomplish what 
could not have been done by the people through their legislative representa- 
tives would have been possible had it not been for the influence of a strong 
trade combination which through some means swayed the court of final resort. 

While the vote of the women on such local option cases as came before 
them was judicious, as it was predicted it would be, favoring license of law- 
abidiag applicants, the women did insist upon compliance with laws for 
protection of minors and preservation of order; and it was probably the 
inordinate zeal of Judge Greene, of the Seattle court, to force women to the 
front for these objects that led to organization for repeal of the suffrage 
act. Mrs. Duniway predicted this result, and urged moderation, until, at 
least, such time as the right might be engrafted into a state constitution, 
saying: "Be careful of the bridge that has carried you over; it is frail as 
yet and cannot bear excessive burdens till strengthened by a stronger founda- 
tion." But her advice was unheeded, and by a class of people, too, who had 
afforded very little aid in the passage of the law, but wished to use it as a 
force to regulate the morals of the people. Men who considered it a religious 
duty to institute crusades and compel acquiescence, instead of appealing to 
reason, became most persistent in urging the use of the ballot for this pur- 
pose by women. 

In conclusion, 1 would say that the great body of women made intelli- 
gent voters and honest and conscientious officeholders, so far as their service 
had extended in that line of duty, and capable jurors specially fitted for 
protection of family and fireside. Although at first more radical in that line 


than prudence directed for lasting results^ they were daily growing in dis- 
cretion as well as knowledge, and it would not have been long till they would 
have become potent factors of a model system of civil government. 

Instead of women being the objects of insult by a rabble at the polls, 
the booths ceased to be the rendezvous of the vicious or intemperate, and 
they were as quiet and orderly as elsewhere wherein woman's gentle in- 
fluence is felt. Had a disposition been displayed to make it otherwise, there 
would have been enough of true manhood present to afford ample protection 
to women. Then, again, many avenues were opened to woman for honorably 
making her way forward in the rigorous struggle of life which she must 
meet when thrown upon her own resources. 

These are, in brief, the impressions of the writer, based upon the facts 
presented in the experimental test of woman's capability for political rights 
in the Territory of Washington. That it was a success in all respects makes 
it the more to be regretted that a branch of our government we have been 
taught to reverence and honor should have been used as the only available 
method for triumph of the machinations of a business which a no less au- 
thority than the Supreme Court of the United States says should be regulated 
and restrained by law — ^the embodiment of the people's will in statutory form. 

Disheartened, disorganized and disfranchised by this means, the suffrage 
party was in no condition to make a successful effort to carry the suffrage 
clause of the state constitution in 1889; but a vote of 16,527 was polled for 
woman suffrage, i^nd 35,613 against it. The women's votes would have added 
quite enough, it is safe to say, with the influence they would have carried with 
the politicians, to have placed the power irrevocably in the constitution of the 
State of Washington. But the end is not yet. 

266 Morrison- Street, Portland, Oregon 

The Security Savings and Trust Company was formed July 20, 1890, and 
incorporated under the names of the following gentlemen: C. H. Lewis, 
Henry Failing, H. W. Corbett, C. A. Dolph, C. F. Adams and A. Bush. The 
present officials of the corporation are.: President, C. F. Adams ; secretaries, 
R. G. Jubitz and G. F. Russell. 

From the start the bank has maintained a high standard and ranks as 
one among the safest depositories in the Northwest. It has fiUed the want 
of just such accommodations as its name implies. To those of small earnings 
it means much to have at hand a place where their savings can be deposited 
and at the same time yield interest. This means more than the mere oppor- 
tunity to deposit money in small amounts. The very possibility is an induce- 
ment to save and cultivate the spirit of economy, and also help to overcome 
the disposition to consume all of one's earnings in daily expenses. Hence 
it acts as a moral stay to the people. . 

The resources of this bank are $3,576,490, distributed as follows : Loans, 
$2,232,078; bonds, $862,154; real estate, $11,188; cash and due from corre- 
spondents, $471,069 ; capital stock and surplus, $375,000 ; deposits, $3,170,681.65. 



On June 15, 1905, tbia inatitution of learning for young girlg will celebrate the 
twentj-flftb anniversary of its foundation. Upon its paM work God's bsnediotiona 
have been eheil, while upon its future reets the crown of promise. Within two years 
the general governmeDt of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jeaus and Mary hopea 
to have erected and completed one of the finest academies of tlie Qreat West. The 
aite haa already been secured on Capital Hill, which commands from this point a 
magnificent view of the Caacadea and Olympic rangea and the grand water environ- 
menta of the Queen City. 

In 1880 Very Bev. F. X. Prefontaine laid the foundation of Holy Names Academy 
on the corner of Second and Spring streets. The work of theae twenty-flve years lives 
in the hearta of hundreda of pupils who are the joy and solace of their Alma Mater. 




Work of Baptist Women in the Pacific Northwest 


L ROM the time of th« organization of the first Baptist Church in the 
Northwest, the call came to our women to be co-laborers in lines 
of Christian work which especially appeal to women. This was 
the giving of the gospel to women in pagan lands. Besides these 
duties, the Baptist women have not been unmindful of the in- 
dividual needs in their home churches and neighborhoods, or of the oppor- 
tunities for service in various directions, as is evidenced by the Ladies' Aid 
Societies in our churches, the systematic calling upon strangers and the sick 
and poor. 

For a time the mission circle was auxiliary to the Woman's Baptist Foreign 
Missionary Society of 
the West, which, with 
its sister society of the 
East, had been formed 
only the year before. 
Thus quick were the 
sisters of this remote 
territory to respond to 
calls and opportuni- 
ties for help. By 
1874 the missionary 
idea had so grown up- 
on the coast that there 
was formed in San 
Francisco the Wom- 
an 's Baptist Foreign 
Missionary Society of 
the Pacific Coast, 
which claimed as one 
of its constituents this 
little band at Olyin- 
pia, and also two 
more which had been first baptist church 

lormed by this time at Eluia and Seattle. 'The "White Tempie-j 

In 1876 Mrs, J. C. Baker, of Oakland, Cal., came to Oregon and organized 
some circles, among them one at Oregon City and another at Salem, making 
them auxiliary to the same general society at San Francisco. But two years 
later, as the distances were so great, making it impossible for delegates to 
gather from the remote fields, another general society, called the Woman's 


Baptist Foreign Missionary Society of the North Pacifio Coast, was formed 
liaving for its conatitueney Oregon, Eastern Wasliington, North Idaho and 
British Columbia, 

In 1882 Oregon voted to leave the North Pacific Coast Society, and be- 
come directly auxiliary to the Missionary Union. Ita constituency at this 
time was twelve circles and sis mission bands — a few of these being in Kastem 

In 1883 Miss Adele M. Fields, of Swatow, China, made a hasty tour of 
Oregon and Washington, and enlisted many circles in a plan for providing 
a training school for Chinese women in a part of the Swatow district. The 
circle at Seattle in particular gave important aid in this work. Mission 
work among the Japanese and Chinese at Seattle has resulted in the forma- 
tion of a church for each of these nationalities, under the auspices of the first 

church ; the Tabernacle church of the same city has sent a missionary to the 
Philippines; work among the Danes, Swedes and Norwegians also has re- 
ceived much attention at the hands of Seattle Baptists. 

In 1884 Oregon decided to assume the support of a missionary, and Miss 
Minnie Bnzzell, of Nebraska, was sent to Swatow, China. For only a few 
years did her health allow her to labor there ; but on her return fruitful work 
was done in Oregon for several years, being marked by a large increase in 
missionary interest, and by large contributions, reaching in one year the 
sum of $1,875. 

From that time until now the Oregon society has had in the foreign 
field a number of representatives — Miss Pursell at Nowgong, Assam, sent by 
the Young People's Societies; Miss Skinner, an Oregon girl, at Cumbum, 
India; Miss Glia Campbell, sent to the Hakkas, in China; Miss Kate Qoddard 


to Ningpo^ China, and Miss Stella Bagon to Shevegyin, Burmah. It also 
sent to the training school at Chicago Miss* Addie Williams, of Oregon. 
Since 1885 Mrs. E. S. Latourette has continuously served as corresponding 
secretary; Mrs. M. L. Driggs as president since 1889^ and Mrs. James Failing 
as recording secretary from 1888 to 1903. The society was incorporated in 

In Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho the home and foreign mis- 
sion work have for the most part gone hand in hand, Union circles pledging 
support to both causes having been the rule. Miss Allen, general missionary, 
took charge of the Chinese mission work in Spokane in 1895. The general 
work was also actively prosecuted, nearly every church in the field being 

Some of the specific work of the women in this field has been the educa- 
tion of one young woman at the training school, the support for a time 
of the Scandinavian mission at Spokane. Another opportunity for help was 
given our women about 1894, by Rev. S. W. Beaven, a resident pastor on 
Vashon Island, Washington, at Burton, between Seattle and Tacoma. The 
need for another home for the children of foreign missionaries, beside those 
already in Massachusetts and Illinois, had long been apparent. Mr. Beaven 's 
proposition was that he and his wife, assisted by his two sisters, should take 
the initiative in providing such a home if the women's missionary societies on 
the coast would co-operate. In 1895 a large house was built by Mr. Beaven, 
the women's societies and individual friends assisting in the furnishings. 
Later it, with its grounds, was purchased by the denomination on the coast 
and placed under the management of a representative committee of fifteen, 
five to reside near the home. Mr. Beaven and his wife were retained as 
superintendent and matron. Their care and the home has proved ideal, thus 
softening the sorrows of missionary parents whose children must have their 
early education in the home land, away from those most dear to them. 

During the past two years all the women's foreign missionary societies 
on the coast have become afiiliated with the Woman's Baptist Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society of the West, and the probabilities are that the home at Burton 
will also come under the same management. 

Pioneer courts, as well as pioneers of all other sorts, have a history peculiar 
to themselves. The first court opened in Corvallis was in a little log house, 
the home of Mrs. J. C. Avery. Judge Pratt, with all due dignity and the 
asual ceremony, pronounced the court open, and then Joe Meek, clothed with 
the authority of United States Marshal, stepped outside the door and called 
in a loud, sonorous voice, **Hear ye! hear ye! come into court," though there 
was not a person within hearing save Mrs. Avery, nor another object that 
broke the^ stillness save the dasher of her chum, as she sat by the fireplace 
composedly churning during this imposing ceremony, the formal opening of 
the first court in that judicial district. — (Notes furnished by Mrs. George 
R. Helm, nee Miss Frances Avery.) 


Scenic Attractions of the 1905 Exposition 

^ LTHOUQH the Lewis and Clark Exposition will have many unique 
t/wgSk features, the one thing that will make it stand out as different 
'I^Sk from any other exposition that the world has ever seen will be 
^P^» the Bcenic attractions of the Exposition and of the city in which 
it is held. Without exaggeration we may say that certainly no 
other city in the United States is more beautifully located than Portland. 

Standing on any of the heights which border the western side of the city, 
one may look upon a most inspiring and beautiful scene. The striking and 

unusual feature of thf landtu'ape about Portland is the sea of verdure-elad 
firs which stretches as far as the oye can reach. The crowning features of 
the landscape — valley, hills and plain— that greets the expectant eye of the 
sight-seer are the majestic peaks of five snow-capped mountains that rise 
above the distant mountain chain, clear and insistent. Whether, therefore, the 


Exposition will reach the expectations of visitors or not is, after all, imma- 
terial, for no lover of nature could gaze upon the beauties which surround 
Portland without feeling that he has been paid many times over for coming 
to this part of the world. 

The location of the Exposition is in itself one of rare- beauty. The green 
hills at the rear, green throughout the year, will be a great relief to those 
who come from the parched regions of the South or the dry and alkaline 
plains of the Middle West or the scorched regions of the East. In the hottest 
of July days, when in the East the thermometer is sweltering at from 90 to 
100 degrees Fahrenheit, the cool breezes of the Willamette will blow upon 
the delighted visitor, bringing with them refreshing odors of the Pacific. 

In laying out the grounds themselves, nature was disturbed to the least 
possible extent. Sturdy old firs, hundreds of years old, have been used with 
great decorative eflfect, and paths that twist and turn along the hillsides 
have been made to adapt themselves to the natural beauty of the grounds, 
liooking to the north there is one expanse of water, and although the summer 
days in Portland are hardly ever disagreeably warm, the sight of this beauti- 
ful lake, with the government building in the distance, will lend a charm 
even to the most unpoetic of beings. We can never get away, however, from 
the sturdy, majestic, awe-inspiring peak of old Mt. Hood, that stands like a 
sentinel to the right. Old as time itself, it stands there almost like a living, 
sentient being, now thrusting its existence upon us in an unexpected manner 
and seeming only twenty or thirty miles away, and again cold, distant, formal. 
Although four other snow-clad mountains are to be seen from the height back 
oi the city, two of them higher than Mt. Hood and one of them almost as 
high, none of the others has that majestic appearance which has endeared 
itself to the heart of every loyal Portland er like old Mt. Hood. There is 
therefore a charm, a delight, a memory that will never fade away, to the 
expectant visitor to the Exposition. He may come to see the Exposition, and 
his greatest expectations will be more than realized, but he will return, if he 
returns at all, having seen Nature, and he will be charmed, for the works 
of nature are ever greater than the works of man. 


Corns and caUosities have afflicted the race since the introduction of footwear. The 
first mode of treatment was to cut these growths, and there were professional com parers, 
later known as chiropodists. The apothecaries compounded preparations from acids 
warranted to remove corns and callouses, which often produced serious results. Mr. 
Deveny, of the firm of the Devenys, believing that safer and more effectual treatment 
should be employed, made a comprehensive study of the subject, and by careful experiments 
in compounding essential oils, he has produced an ointment which causes a separation, 
and the corn can be peeled off without pain or soreness. There -are many kinds of corns; 
the one having a fistula under it is perhaps the most serious. Since a special treatment 
of each must be applied, scientific knowledge of the work is required. This knowledge 
the Devenys claim to possess, and use it with skill, to which thirty years of successful 
practice testifies, twelve of which have been spent in Portland. Their parlors are in the 
Drew building, 162 Second street, room 203, Portland, Or. There all sufferers will receive 
careful and prompt attention. 


Raising the Flag Over a Northwest School House 


HE WAR was at an end. We were a school of patriots. The 
Fourth of July was coming. I conceived the plan to purchase a 
flag and have it raised over my school house that day. I wrote out 
a subscription paper, and in a short time I had $40, with which 
we bought a nice, large bunting flag ready for the celebration. 
The following is a copy of the subscription paper: 

**We do hereby promise to pay to the bearer the sum of money we 
affix to our names subscribed herein for the purpose of purchasing a flag 
for the Delta school house, to be held as its property." 

The glorious Fourth of 1866 came. The sun rose in all his glory; a 
stiflf breeze was blowing and it would not be a hot day. The people were 
full of the spirit of patriotism. The purchasing of the flag had aroused 
them, and for the first time in the history of that little valley they were to 
celebrate the Fourth of July. 

I had secured Rev. H. H. Spalding, who was passing through that part, 
to act as chaplain on this great occasion. Father Spalding, as he was fa- 
miliarly known, was sent out thirty years before as a missionary to the 
Nez Perce Indians by the Presbyterian Board of Missions. He had written 
out his prayer on separate sheets of paper, and while he was offering the 
petition the wind whisked one of the sheets away out of reach, but the prayer 
went on, and we felt sure the Lord knew the blessings asked for on that piece 
of paper, and we doubted not that they were answered. 

Our schoolroom was small, so stakes were set in the ground near by 
on which rails were laid and then a covering of fir boughs. This arbor 
covered a space large enough to accommodate all the friends who came. 
Including my pupils, 150 people were present. My little melodeon served • 
as an instrument to accompany the singing, and it was as grand to the as- 
sembled people as if it had been a pipe organ. 

The order of exercises held on the Fourth of July, 1866, at the raising 
of the flag over the school house by pupils of the Delta Academy, under the 
direction of the teacher, Mrs. N. J. A. Simons, was, in part, as follows : 

Prayer by Rev. H. H. Spalding. 

Singing, ** America,'* by the young ladies. 

Raising the flag, by the teacher and pupils. 

Reading of Declaration of Independence, by Mr. Looney Bond. 

Singing, **Star Spangled Banner," by the school. 

Reading, ** History of the Flag,'' by Melissa Cox. 

After the exercises were over we had a picnic dinner under the arbor. 
I doubt not that some of these children, now gray haired and heads of 
families, can recall this glorious Fourth and repeat the stOry to their children 


of the raising of this flag, the first to wave over a school building in the 
Ptuiific Northwest. 

(Mrs. Simons, the leading spirit and chief actor in this little drama, 
well worthy to be chronicled as a part of our Northwest history, is yet 
living, bright and active. Though for years totally blind, upon the 
walls of her memory glow the pictures of the past and in her heart still 
sing the same sweet songs of love for country, God and humanity. Her 
days are full of work and helpfulness, though sightless hsr eyes. Through 
a device of her own inventing she is enabled to write very legibly, and wrote 
with her own hand the foregoing article. She also does wood carving and 
makes portfolios of leather. Not the least of her helpfulness is her suntiy, 
contented spirit, which surmounts her affliction and radiates into the heart of 
every one who finds way into her delightful presence; to these she is a 
lesson and a benediction. — M. 0. D.) 


The msrvelouB growth of this house speaks volumes for the possibilities of Oregon 
and the Northwest. In the short space of fourteen years this firm has grown from a 
very small beginning to one of the leading department stores of the Pacific Coast. Tbeir 

new store building on the corner of Third and Morrison streets occupies a central position 
in the city, and is one of the most modern equipped in the West. Their method of doing 
business has won the confidence of tbeir patrons, and their large and pommodious quarters 
are always filled with buyers. 


Woman Suffrage in Idaho 

£«ditor of Boise Dally Statesman 

E WANTED IT; we went after it, and we got it. After we got it 
we liked it, and we find ourselves liking it better after an ex- 
perience with it reaching over four campaigns. 
That is the story of equal suffrage in Idaho. 
The ballot was placed in the hands of the better half of the 
I>opulation of this state at the election held in 1896, and the results of the 
change have fully justified those through whose efforts the reform was 
brought about. 

A brief review of the subject may, however, be of interest to the reader, 
and for the purpose of such a review we shall turn back a few years and 
recall the circumstances under which the change occurred. 

The first political step toward the enfranchisement of women was taken 
in 1894, when the state republican convention adopted a resolution pledging 
the party to submit the question to a vote of the people. This was brought 
about through the activity of an equal suffrage association that had been 
maintained for two years, and was aided by national suffragists, including 
Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, Mrs. Ida M. Johns and Mrs. Abigail Scott Duniway. 

True to its pledge, the party, at the ensuing session of the legislature, 
submitted an amendment to the state constitution giving women the right 
of suffrage. The equal suffrage association then went to work with great 
vigor to carry the amendment through, and its efforts were crowned with 
success at the election in 1896. On election day there were workers at the 
polls who called the attention of voters to the amendment at the last moment, 
and all were rejoiced when the returns were received to find the reform had 
been carried by a safe majority. One obstacle remained, however, a ques- 
tion being raised whether less than a majority of all the votes was sufficient 
to carry an amendment. This question was carried into the Supreme Court, 
where it was decided that it was necessary only to have a majority of all 
those voting on the amendment. 

The change went into effect as smoothly as though the women had al- 
ways been accustomed to voting. There was, though, a remarkable improve- 
ment in the conduct of elections. A better tone was observed at once. The 
presence of women at the polls had an effect similar to their presence at any 
other place — ^rowdyism disappearing: and giving place to a quiet, genteel 
polling-place atmosphere comparable to that observed in a dry goods store, 
or any other place where the sex gathers. 

Some women have become officeholders, but there is no disposition among 
them to crowd into politics in that manner. In nearly all instances women 
are selected as superintendents of schools in state and county; some have 
been elected as county treasurers, and we have one female county clerk. 


When the change was made a few women were elected as members of the 
legislature, but there seems to be no disposition to demand places there, 
and for some sessions none has appeared. 

Women have generally taken part in our elections; they manifest a 
lively interest in them, and their influence is felt in all contests. There may 
be a few who do not embrace the opportunity to vote, but the writer has no 
knowledge of such. 

In connection with this feature of the subject, it may be stated that the 
lesson taught is that the placing of the ballot in the hands of women has not 
brought about any such conditions as are always portrayed by opponents 
of equal suffrage. It has not changed or lowered women; it has not started 
them out as politicians; it has not taken them from their homes. It has 
simply made them a power in determining who shall be chosen to make and 
administer our laws. Those who have served in public positions have re- 
flected credit upon their sex and upon the state. 

The influence of the women vote is felt in the convention. It has im- 
proved our ticket, better men being nominated as a rule. Whenever an 
important question, especially one of a moral nature, is before the people, the 
women can be relied upon to carry the election for the right. While that is 
true, they cannot be stampeded by politicians who seek to play upon their 
emotions when the facts do not justify the action asked of them. They are 
sane and sound in their political action, but when, in a practical manner, a 
moral question comes up for decision at the polls, the women vote is on 
the right side in far greater proportion than that of the men. This has 
always been the hope of the conservative supporters of equal suffrage, and 
that hope has been fully justified by the results of women's voting in Idaho. 

Fear of the women vote deters legislatures from taking action that would 
have been a forgone conclusion in the days before the wife and mother ap- 
peared at the ballot places to aid in deciding as to men and measures. We 
had gambling licensed in Idaho prior to the reform, but at the next session 
of the legislature the law was changed. That was because the members 
realized the women would smash those who might defeat such action. In 
municipal elections the women sweep the foundations from under those who 
wink at violation of the law we now have against the vice. 

Soon after the adoption of the amendment a woman's club in Boise pre- 
pared an ordinance prohibiting expectoration on sidewalks and in public 
places. It was sent into the city council with request that it be passed. The 
members looked at each other and indulged in some badinage, all being plainly 
ashamed to father the measure. But something had to be done ; a powerful 
club of voters had made the demand in the name of decency, and this or- 
dinance, which would not even have received consideration in the old days, 
was passed without a dissenting voice. 

God bless the women of the state ! They are a tower of strength for all 
who enter the lists in the cause of civic decency and righteousness, their votes 
being always ready to support a reasonable, just and practical demand. 


iThe Ladies' Relief Society 

ABCH 20, 1867, a little band of women met in the basement of the 
First Presbyterian Church, on the comer of Third and Washington 
streets, to consider how best to systematize their eiSforts for the 
relief of the poor of Portland. Previous to this the few families 
heeding aid were chiefly those who had crossed the plains, and who 
had exhausted their little means. When, in the fall, the long trains of emi- 
grant wagons wended their way down through the valleys they were cordially 
met and their wants relieved. Thirty-two ladies composed the society, which 
was then organized under the name of the ** Ladies' Relief Society." These 
women represented no one denomination. 

For several years the mode of raising funds was by giving various kinds 
of entertainments, the well remembered amateur concerts, literary festivals, 
sociables, bazaars and charity balls. These were liberally patronized by all 
classes of citizens. 

In a few years the great number of forsaken and neglected children 
appealed strongly to the sympathies of the members of the society, and 
the need of a home where they could be kept and cared for was discussed. 
A committee was appointed to look for a suitable house and also for a matron 
to take charge of it. 

July 8, 1871, a special meeting was called to consider the expediency 
of purchasing a piece of land and erecting a building. The minutes of that 
meeting read as follows: ''Two lots and a small house across the creek have 
been offered for sale at $2000, which business men think cheap and desirable 
for our purpose." It was unanimously voted that the purchase be made. 

Since at that time an incorporation composed of women only could not 
legally hold real estate, some of the leading business men of the city became 
members of the relief society, and acted as its board of trustees. 

In 1880 .a block of land in South Portland, on Corbett street, was donated 
by Henry Villard, of New York. Through the liberality of friends the hand- 
some and commodious building erected upon it and now occupied as **The 
HoraeV was completed in November, 1884, free of debt. Beautiful grounds 
surround the home. From its broad verandas almost the entire city is in 
vieWj also the river and the mountains, above which arise the two great 
snow peaks. Hood and St. Helens. 

The home accommodates 100 children. The age limits are, for girls, 
from 3 to 14 years; for boys, from 3 to 10 years. The nurseries are large 
and well supplied with beautiful toys and nursery books, showered upon the 
home by the children of the well-to-do and the rich, who delight to share their 
numerous gifts with the poor ones who find shelter here. 

More than 2000 children have been cared for, many of whom were placed, 
by adoption, in good families, and have grown up useful members of society. 



To fit the girla for self-support, training in domestic science is given 
insofar as means and eireumstaneea will permit. A syatematic domestin 
training school is hoped for in the near future. 

The sick in 'the home have been attended by physicians of the citj' 

For a few years a donation from the state was given the home, though 
for the greater part it has been supported through the efforts of the society 
and the munificence of the people. Several liberal beqaests have been made, 
and the home now has an endowment fund, which is under the management 
of the board of trustees, the personnel of which has remained iinchanged, 
save when a member has been removed by death. Airs. Mary Holbrook, a 
woman divinely appointed, it would seem, for this work, served as president 
of the society for thirty years. Her term, too, closed only at the Master's 
call, "Come up higher," 

The work of the relief society has not been confined to the maintenance 
of the home. Until the support by the state was withdrawn and the work 
of the home had grown into large proportions, the society attended sys- 
tematically to its first work, ward visiting, thereby keeping in touch with 
the poor families of the city and ministering to their wants intelligently. 

Linda BrOQ bod -Salmon, nee PaDoingtoii, whose 
portrait appeara with this article, is the author 
of a popular and unique toxt-book on Illustrative 
Shorthand, and is the originator of the only Un- 
vocolized System of Shorthand ever published, 
where the vowels were discarded from start to 
finish. This work was copyrighted in 1888, and 
a rcviBfd second edition m 190U. 

This system is founded on the Beo Pitman 
SvHtcni, simplified, classified and arranged, but 
with such eliminations and additions as are 
madp imperative by the demand of the day for 
accuracy and speed. This not only simplifies the 
method employed, but shortens the process of ac- 
quiring a working knowledge of it, as the com- 
plete course, including Commercial Correspond- 
ence, Law Phrasing, Editorial and General Re- 
porting, is completed in twelve weeks, with a 
movement of 120 to 200 words per minute, with 
perfect legibility years hence as on the day of 

Mrs. Bronson -Salmon was born in Baltimore, 

Md., and is a lineal deseeDdant of the house of 
Muncaster, Cumberland, England. Rducateil at 
St. Luke's Academy, Philadelphia, and identified 
with educational work for the past twenty-flvp 
years in the City of Portland, Or., her adopted 
home, and where her studio, in the Washington 
building, is the recognized head of schools in 
the Uastern States as well as in Australasia. 

Offices SO-IT^S Washington building, Fourth 
and Washington streets, Portland, Or. 


Woman's Club Work in Idaho 


HE Woman's Columbia Club came into existence in 1S92, when some 
of the women of Boise, Idaho, decided to furnish the Idaho building 
at the Columbia Exposition in Chicago in 1893. After this good work 
was completed these women decided that the club should continue 
and that its work should be (1) to establish and maintain a circulat- 
ing library and free reading room; (2) to take up any line of work which shall 
be designed to promote the highest interests of the city. 

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union of Boise had collected some 
books which they kindly turned over to the Woman's Columbia Club, and 
this formed the nucleus of the Boise library. Club members at first took 
turns in keeping the library open, but soon after Miss Ella C. Reed was chosen 
librarian. The city giving the necessary room, the library was placed in the 
city hall. Through the efforts of the club a traveling library was started, 
which has proved itself a power for good in the more remote parts of Idaho. 
In 1901 the members of the Columbia Club realizing that Boise should have 
a library building, determined to try to secure aid from Mr. Carnegie toward 
the erection of a building. A committee of three, composed of Mrs. Beatty, 
Mrs. Ridenbough and Mrs. Richards, was appointed by the club to take the 
matter in charge. To the untiring and continued effort of the committee 
is mainly due the results finally accomplished. They found that before 
securing any promises from Andrew Carnegie they would have to show on 
the part of the city a suitable site and a fund for annual maintenance. Ac- 
cordingly after the necessary time had elapsed for advertising, voting and 
selling bonds, the sum of $4000 was available for the site, and a fine half 
block, centrally located, purchased from the city school board. Then the 
city council voted an annual maintenance fund of $2500 and created a board 
of five library trustees, three of whom were the members of the club com- 
mittee in charge of the work. In response to a request, Mr. Carnegie 
donated the sum of $15,000. While we had hoped to receive $25,000, we 
were not discouraged, but went to work to raise at least $5000 in the city. 
The club consented to continue its maintenance of the library, thus allowing 
most of the $2500 given yearly by the city to accumulate towards the build- 
ing fund. Through the influence of a personal friend Mr. Carnegie gave to 
the library an additional $5000. The building is now under way, and will 
probably be ready for occupancy by the 1st of January, 1905. 

The club has thus gradually grown to its present proportions. It now 
has eleven departments of work, two hundred active members and twenty 
honorary members. It is a recognized power in the community. Although 
partially a literary club, its strength lies in its public work for the better- 
ment of the city and the state. There has been space for only a brief raen- 

sio. 9 


tion of its most important achievements. Many lesser ones which may have 
had as great an influence for good must go unmentioned. 

Eastern club women tell us that we are especially favored in receiving 
the aid and co-operation of state legislators and city oflBcials in our efforts 
to improve prevailing usages and correct existing abuses. They hint that 
it is largely due to our possession of the ballot. But we prefer, and justly, 
to attribute this to the native courtesy and kindness of our western man. 
Be he governor, mayor, legislator or private citizen, he has always responded 
generously to our appeals, and on every occasion he has more than seconded 
any effort made by the club for useful reforms. 

Scenes about the Home of My Childhood 


N the fair County of Linn is Prairie Home, the donation claim of 
my father and mother. 'Mid its enchanting scenes my childhood 
was spent. On the east, near by, is Sand Ridge. Upon its gently 
rolling surface is the schoolhouse, and not far away the burying 
ground. Just beyond, Washington Butte stands like a benign 
guardian of the peaceful homes and happy people clustered about its base, 
or spread out over the expanse of the beautiful prairie. The prairie is charm- 
ingly diversified by the woods that skirt the banks of the streams, and in 
spring time over its verdant landscape wind broad sloughs like ribands of 
silver. Back lie the hills and mountains and further beyond rise majestically 
five snow peaks — Mt. Hood, Mt. Jefferson and the Three Sisters. Some dis- 
tance to the north is little Knox Butte, fair to look upon with its smooth 
round knolls and plain and wooded slopes of evergreen. To the south stand- 
ing out from their sister hills are Ward's and Saddle Buttes, with faces bare 
and bold, but beautiful in their graceful outlines. West, across the Willamette 
Valley and beyond the Willamette River — pride of Oregon — stretches the 
Coast Range densely wooded and low, but high enough to seem a protection 
to the valley against Old Ocean with his threatening roar when wintry 
storms rage 'round him. This scene in its entirety, be it in sunshine, or 
when ** Oregon rains are raining,'' or when the harvest moon shines pale 
and calm upon it, holds memory's eyes entranced by its loveliness and 
grandeur, but no other part of its sublime whole is so near and dear to us, 
or has left upon Qur hearts an impression so indelible, as the buttes. They 
seem to have stepped out from the mother range to make friendly overtures 
to the valleys and the prairie, to reach down in their gentle slopes and say 
to the denizens of the plain, **Come up out of the vale, and from our heights 


catch a broader view: in the enchantment of the beauty spread out before 
you forget the greed and strife that mar the lives of men.'* 

Buttes of Linn! O Buttes of Linn! 

Ye speak to me in tones as clear 

As when my infant eyes looked on thee 

And girlhood's dreamy thoughts 

Spun 'round thee strange sweet fantasies. 

Upon thy face, O Washington, 
A picture I could see so true 
It all but spake to me. 
It was of him the great and good 
Who gave the name of Washington. 
Our country's own whose name is thine. 
Strong-featured, beautiful thou art ! 
A down thy sides on north and south 
The waving trees seem like the locks 
That flowed from his great brow, 
Ilis noble face adorning. 

At evening time, when day's last beams 
Shed o'er thee soft and gentle light, 
How oft I've seen my mother stand, 
In awe enwrapt, and gaze on thee, 
And low, in words, scarce whispered, say 
**How beautiful! how beautiful." 
Through long years past come back to me 
Re-echoed from thy face her words, 
**How beautiful! how beautiful!" 

Buttes of Linn ! Buttes of Linn ! 

Ever to me the story tell 

What ye alone can say. 

Of happiest days, of loves most loved, 

Of glorious dreams of future deeds. 

speak ! and let me feel once more 

The thrill that warmed me then ; 

The fireside love and hearthstone dreams 

Within the walls of home. 

Buttes of Linn! Buttes of Linn! 
The world is wide and fair. 

But nowhere in its great expanse 
Can any place, however grand, 
Bring to my heart the solace sweet 

1 find imprinted in thy forms, 

For love and home are pictured there. 


Frances Fuller Victor 


A WOMAN of rare charm and ability was Frances Fuller Victor, 
Vaprh who died in Portland, Oregon, Deeeniher 14, 1902. 
aBuf Frances Fuller was born in the township of Rome, New York, 

^P^^ May 23, 1826. Early in life she married Henry C. Victor, s naval 
engineer, who, in 18fi;i, was ordered to California. At the close 
of the war husband and wife moved to Oregon, which state Mrs, Victor so 
loved that she devoted herself with enthusiasm to its fasctimting history, and 
thus gained for herself the distinction of a most versatile figure in Pacific 
Coast literature. Faithful, 
precise, unprejudiced was 
3Irs. Victor, displaying in all 
her work historical genius, 
that genius which can "see 
the nobler meaning of 
events," even though the 
events be near at hand. 

The first book written by 
Mrs. Victor on the history of 
Oregon was "The River of 
the West" (1870), a biogra- 
phy of the old trapper, Jo- 
seph L. Meek. This tale, full 
of merit, was introduced by 
a poem, entitled "Sunset at 
the Mouth of the Columbia." 

"All Over Oregon and 
Washington" (1872) was the 
second work, touching on the 
Northwest. The preface to 
this closes with the^e words: 
"The beautiful and favored 
region of the Northwest 
Coast is about to assume 
a commercial importanee 
which is sure to stimulate in- 
quiry concerning the matters 
herein treated of. I trust 
enough is contained between 




the covera of this book to induce the very curious to come and see." 

Mr, Victor was lost at aea in November, 1875, and during 1878-1890 Mrs. 
Victor lived in California, entraged in historical writing for Hubert Howe 

In 1893 Mrs. Victor, authorized by the legislature, compiled a history 
of the early Oregon Indian wars, which was published the following year. 
Her contributions to the Overland Monthly and to the Oregon Historical 
Quarterly were of great value, Mrs. Victor's style of writing was graceful, 
and, by her pen, dull facts were made interesting. Laboring weeks and 
months at a time, ■ she found in her work a pleasure that more than com- 
pensated for all the ills of life. She had ready wit and a keen sense of 
humor, and greatly enjoyed those writers possessed of this rare gift, especially 
Barrie and Ian MacLaren. Artistic in taste, deft with her needle and by 
nature charmingly domestic, she was withal a woman's woman. 

There was much sorrow in Mrs, Victor's life, for, one by one, her dear 
ones passed into the world beyond, leaving her at the close entirely alone. 
The sister, Metta, was also a writer, and in the last days Mrs. Victor would 
often speak of "Singing Sybil" with exquisite tenderness and love. Hers 
was ft spirit full of that cheerfulness which Thackeray describes as a pure 
heart, a loving, kind disposition, humility and charity, a generous apprecia- 
tion of others, and a modest opinion of self. 

All honor to Frances Fuller Victor!' She loved Oregon, and Oregon will 
not forget her. 





m^^^Ly v 
















.^^ fjdi 






Seattle Seminary 

A SCHOOL of high academie standards; a strong faculty of expe- 

MMS^k rienced college teachers; best moral and religious influences thrown 
j^j|^_ around the students; nianagement more like a large home than an 
' ^ ordinary institution ; no safer place for boy or girl ; vicious per- 
sons not allowed in the school. Buildings modem and up to date 
in every particular. Fifteen minutes' ride to the heart of Seattle. A large 
campus, and many scenic attractions. Prepares for best colleges. For cata- 
lognic and particulars, address the Principal, Rev. Alexander Beers, Fremont 
Station, Seattle, Wash. 


The Oregon Women's Flax Industry 

By MRS. W. P. LORD, Salem. Or. 

T the present time we, as a nation, are in the enjoyment of such great 
prosperity it is difficult for us to look back to those years in the 
'90s when the reverse was the case. When we see the market 
quotations, **hops 31 cents,'' can we recall, not so many yeArs ago. 
when hops were 4, 5 and 6 cents a pound — a loss of 2 cents a 
pound to all those unfortunate people who had grown themf Wheat was 38 
cents a bushel, butter 15 cents a pound, and so on down the long list of the 
commodities, which our farmer friends depend upon for existence. While on 
a visit East in 1893, the agricultural depression being everywhere the subject 
uppermost in discussion, some ladies connected officially with the Chicago 
Fair urged upon the writer that she should bring to the attention of the 
people of Oregon the fact that the world's supply of flax is year by year fail- 
ing to meet the demand of manufacturers for raw material; also to call to 
their attention the remarkable showing made at the Centennial, when Oregon's 
flax took first prize in competition with the best product of Ireland and of 
Belgium. Surely the time had arrived when Oregon's long ** buried talent" 
should see the light of day. 

Mrs. Candace Wheeler, who had been a factor in the development of the 
silk industry, was greatly interested in the idea of an American- linen in- 
dustry, which she felt could be realized in a country where soil, climate and 
water combined to produce ideal conditions for the growth of flax. Mrs. 
Oberg, of Minnesota, had already started a flax crusade in her state, and 
my introduction to her by letter brought a prompt response, with literature 
and personal information on the subject. The writer returned to Oregon 
pledged to do her uttermost to start the ball rolling. 

At this time a station in Whatcom, Washington, under the auspices of the 
fiber department of the Agricultural Bureau, was being conducted under Dr. 
Thornton. He consented to give some illustrated talks at the State Fair, 
end bring with him specimens of flax he had grown. This was the opening 
wedge. The writer supplemented it with talks at Farmers' Institutes and 
Grange meetings, and with frequent personal visits to farmers. 

This work continued the first year. An opportunity was then oflfered 
to present the subject through the medium of a talk at the Woman's Club 
in Portland, the outcome of which was the forming of an association for the 
development of flax culture. A stock company was formed and the mem- 
bers devoted themselves industriously to the work. Farmers responded 
beyond our expectations in willingness to make the effort, and offered of their 
best land for planting. A scutching mill was established, a superintendent 
secured, and every detail was carefully attended to. Some of the foremost 


of Portland's business men gave us freely of their time and counsel in con- 
ducting the financial affairs of the company. It was our hope that, begin- 
ning in a modest way, carefully studying the methods employed in each flax- 
growing country and proving by experiment their adaptability to conditions 
prevailing in our own, we could finally merge into a company, which would 
offer to home capital a safe and remunerative investment. 

*'The cotton crop has made the South; why not the flax crop make the 
Northwest V was our plea, for surely flax and linen are quite as important 
as cotton. 

By investigation we found that linen is protected by the highest rate of 
duty, from 44 to 65 per cent, while raw material, in shape of fiber, had re- 
ceived no consideration. The attention of the Dingley tariff being called 
to this unjust discrimination, Senator Hoar became our champion and urged 
the justice of our claim. Notwithstanding the allied interest of the linen 
trust was quickly on the ground to defend its protected privileges and to 
assert its claim that flax cannot be grown in the United States, our claim 
was recognized, and in the readjustment raw fiber received from $10 to $60 
duty per ton. 

When the finished fiber was ready for sale, samples were forwarded to 
Eastern mills, and the contemptuous reply was received, that '*the stuff 
was not worth 3 cents a pound.'* The Fiber Bureau also came under the 
displeasure of the trust, and was therefore abolished, lip to the time of the 
work on the Pacific Coast the bureau had been considered harmless. How- 
ever, Mr. Dodge, chief of the bureau, was sent to the Paris Exposition. He 
took with him some of the despised 3-cents-a-pound fiber, and received for it 
the bronze medal. This recognition was supplemented by many requests 
from foreign manufacturers to furnish their mills with fiber. 

We had gone through four years of hard work; we were then looking 
for development through a foreign firm, one that had tested our fiber in 
various grades of linens and found that it met all requirements. It was 
the intention of this company to further our work, but severe domestic afflic- 
tion occurring at this time in the family of the head of the firm, the plans 
were retarded. 

At this juncture, in behalf of an Eastern company, Mr. Bosse, a foreign 
expert of great reputation, pre-empted the field. He supposed that he was 
engaged in a legitimate enterprise, and was surprised to find he was wanted 
merely as a tool to prevent the development of the industry. After some 
months of work and much expenditure of money, he was told to abandon 
the field, and was offered heavy remuneration to write a report that flax 
cannot be grown profitably in Oregon. Mr. Bosse was too honest to lend 
himself to such a scheme. Aided by capital which has taken great interest 
in the work inaugurated by the Woman's Flax Association, he has devoted 
his efforts to the work of development. Mr. Bosse, being familiar now with 
the conditions, and realizing all the discouragements encountered by the 
association, asserts that it would have been well nigh impossible for him to 



socoeed in this work but for the labors of the association which had paved 
the way. Farmers are now following up the work. Large farms are being 
divided, dairy farming sharing the interest, and, as dairying can go hand in 
hand with flax culture, we look for a speedy development of what must prove 
one of the greatest resources of the Northwest. 


V 1 ■-"' ■ ; 





f.^umERN Oregon 
AH Pmiirit Company i 


Pine Needle Industry 

By MRS. W. P. LORD. Salem 

NE of the unique industries of the country is located at Grant's 
Pass, Oregon — ^that of the Pacific Pine Needle Company — ^the de- 
velopment of which is in the hands of a woman, Mrt. Mathilde 

Mrs. Cords is German by birth, the descendant of a family 
noted for philanthropic work. Her father was a patron of Froebel, and aided 
him financially in developing his kindergarten theory. Miss Einehardt (Mrs. 
Cords), at that time a young girl in her teens, and under his instruction, took 
charge of 'one of the first kindergartens. 

Mrs. Cords has had an eventful career. Inheriting a fortune, and losing 
by death nearly all of her nearest of kin, she joined a brother in Mexico, and 
at his death came to San Francisco, where she married Mr. D. A. Cords. 
She became interested in the benefits of the pine needle remedies, which are 
manufactured in Norway, and for which the demand in this country is great. 
Being acquainted with the process, she placed a factory at Grant's Pass, 
near the sugar pine forests. The machinery not being satisfactory, she in- 
vented improvements on the old patent, which greatly enhanced the value 
of the product. Then she secured patents on both product and process. 
Her abandoned machines were bought and used by unscrupulous men to 
flood the market with inferior goods. But notwithstanding these difficulties, 
the value of her preparations are now recognized. 

The gold medal for highest grade has been awarded her at three ex- 
positions — the last at St. Louis. The pure extract of pine needles is the 
basic principle in cough remedies, in catarrhal aflPection, and incipient con- 
sumption. Her hope is to be able to establish eventually sanitariums where 
the air will be charged with this life-giving and health-restoring principle. 

To illustrate the spirit possessing many, in fact, most, of the pioneer 
women who came to Oregon in the early days, Mr. George H. Himes gives the 
following: Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Riggs, who lived in La Grange, Illinois, 
became possessed of a desire to emigrate to Oregon as a result of the public 
discussions going on in the early '40s relating to the ** Oregon question." At 
length they decided to make the journey, and Mr. Riggs said to his wife, **I 
will go out there and get a home started and then will return, or send, for you 
and the children." **No, sir," said his wife; **I will go when you go; I will 
follow you as long as there is a button left on your coat, and then I will 
sew on another." This family came to Oregon in 1853 and settled in Polk 
County. The husband went to his reward in 1872 and the wife passed away 
recently in her 87th year, surrounded by sons and daughters, who are num- 
bered among the best citizens of that county. 



This eicelleot educational institution is conducted by the Sisters of the Holy Cron 
from Notre Dame, iDdiana. It is beautifully situated in one of the most picturesque anil 
healthful parts of the city. The high standard of education imparted is so ^nerally 
conceded that it needs no comment. 

The academy is supplied with natural hot siilpliur wslor, it is liglited by electricity, 
and has an iip-to-ilatc and thi)rnii(rh syBtcm of vpiililHtioii. The grounds afford plenty of 
room for pleasant walks anil healthful rcereatiiins. The school year is divided into two 
sesmons of five months eai-h. Tioarders and day pupils are received. For further partic- 
ulars, address. SISTER SUPERIOR, St. Teresa's Academy, 

Boise, Idaho. 


Pioneer Days of Mrs. Matilda Frost 

From notes furnished MRS. ELEANOR C. STBAVENSON 

Y FAMILY and myself crossed the plains in the year of 1862. We 
were on the road six months. We went to California by the old 
Carson road. The train comprised eight wagons and fifteen men. 
A large train of 100 wagons and 300 men dropped in with us for a 
few days while we were on the Sweetwater in Wyoming. In this 
region there was danger from the Indians. From there we took the Carson 
route and the large train left us. The day we parted from them they were 
attacked by the Indians and fought for three days and nights without un- 
hitching their animals. All that the emigrants ate during this time was a 
little flour and raw bacon. At the close of the third day this brave company 
overpowered the Indians. The train turned back over the same route and 
overtook us. The emigrants were overjoyed to find us alive. The Indians 
were stealing all the stock they could get and killing the people. Many 
of the small trains of emigrants were destroyed. 

This large company traveled with us until we reached the Humboldt 
River. From there they went to Oregon. Our little train went on un- 
molested through the Carson desert, a journey of two days and nights. I 
had a funny little experience while on the desert. The second night the 
teams were very weary and nearly dead, so it was necessary to make some 
changes to get the animals through alive. My husband asked me if I could 
drive a yoke of steers, as my horses were needed to relieve another team. 
I said I would try. A long stick was given me to guide them with. I was 
told to say *'gee'' and **haw." I sat in the front of my wagon and, carrying 
out these directions, got along well till after midnight, when my yoke of 
oxen began to bellow, and started on a run out over the rocks and sage brush 
with me yelling as loud as my womanly voice would admit. Whatever caused 
them to act so no one could tell. I drove my own team across the plains, 
and rather enjoyed it. 

After many hardships we landed in the foothills near Red Bluffs, Cali- 
fornia. The next fall we went to Honey Lake Valley. But few people were 
living in this valley and the Indians were hostile. Myself and two little 
children were alone in this dreary valley much of the time. Every minute 
I expected to be killed. Shortly after we left a family of eight were massa- 
cred by the Indians. 

In *64 we heard of the gold excitement in Idaho, and in May we set out 
for the Eldorado. Several days after starting we camped at an old stone 
building, at one time a station for soldiers. Five men had been living there. 
The Indians captured them, burned four at the stake and one in the house. 
The soldiers heard of it. They oame and buried the ashes, all that remained 
of these poor men. 


Two young men who were traveling with us were in a great hurry to 
get to the gold fields at Bannock City, so they started on ahead, saying that 
they had no fear of trouble. The second night after they left us one of them 
was standing guard over their horses and the other was in camp asleep. The 
latter was shot and killed by the Indians, but tb"" other, under th<> covpr 
of friendly darkness, mounted his horse and escaped. We camped, at the 
same place the next night and found there a circus train of about sixty men 
and a few women on their way to Portland, Oregon. Such frightened people 
I never saw before. 

At the summit of Steen's Mountain I was taken quite sick, and we had 
to make camp there. That night the men tied four horses to my wagon. 
About midnight I heard some one untying the horses and I spoke to the 
men who were asleep on the ground. They jumped up quickly, with guns 
in their hands, and this frightened the Indians away. When the men went 
to drive in the loose cattle they found sticking in them arrows shot by the 

In a few days we arrived at Boise, a place of about a dozen houses. The 
stores were tiny rooms, mostly in the dwellings. My first calico dress cost 
50 cents a yard. I bought ticking for my feather bed, and paid $20 for 
twenty yards. A lady friend was shopping with me. At lunch time we 
wished to get something to eat. We bought a pie and paid $1 for it, and 
our cup of tea cost 25 cents. Our first supply of provisions cost us as follows : 
Flour, $40 per 100 lbs. ; bacon, 75 cents per lb. ; sugar, 75 cents per lb. ; butter, 
$1 per lb.; syrup, $15 per gallon, and everything else equally expensive. 
Gold dust was the only kind of money we saw. Most of it came from Idaho 
City, which had the richest placer mines known in the world at that time. 

Mr. Frost had brought from California a mower, and he cut the wild 
grass which grew in great abundance in the natural meadows. This he 
sold for $150 per ton. 

As there was no lumber, my house was made of native timber, which 
was very small. My new home was 12 by 12 feet. 

The Indians were troublesome all through this country until after the 
war in 1878. In that year the settlers near where we lived built a fort, and 
twice we were so frightened that the women and children stayed in it two 
days. A few miles from the fort thirty emigrants were killed. Only one, 
a boy of 16, escaped. During the terrific fight of that one night his hair 
turned white. A beautiful field of clover now covers the graves where 
these poor people were buried. 

Our pioneers who helped to build up this desolate country are indeed 
getting scarce, and will soon be forgotten. As for myself, no words can 
tell what I experienced in those pioneer days, raising my family of nine 


The Mercer Girls 

By r. B. BAGLEY 

N PUGET SOUND the scarcity of women in i)ioneer days was a 
serious matter. From time to time the newspapers mentioned the 
continued scarcity of women, but nothing practical was done to 
improve conditions in this respect until early in 1861, when a 
young gentleman, Asa S. Mercer, arrived in Seattle fresh from 
college. His elder brother, Judge Mercer, was one of the oldest and most 
influential pioneers in the territory. Judge Mercer often made it a semi-jocose 
comment that there was a dearth of young women. He often suggested an 
effort to secure territorial aid for bringing out from New England a party 
of young women who were needed as school teachers and for other positions, 
far removed from that of. household servants. This set young Mercer to 
thinking on the subject. He talked the matter over with the governor of 
the territory and with members of the legislature, and while everybody 
favored the proposition, the public treasury was empty, so he failed to get 
territorial aid. Nothing daunted, he obtained generous private contributions 
sufficient to enable him to go to Boston. There the proposition was placed 
before the public for such of the young w^omen as chose who had been made 
fatherless by the civil war to accompany Mr. Mercer to Washington Territory. 
Quite a large number evinced a willingness to go, but eleven only found 
courage to leave their friends and make a journey of 7000 miles into a 
wilderness. Most of the eleven paid their own way. The party arrived m 
Seattle May 16, 1864. 

Encouraged by his success, Mr. Mercer again went East in 1865 on a 
similar errand. Upon his arrival in the East he went to work and met with 
encouragement wherever he went. July 20, 1865, he writes: **I sail from 
New York August 19 with upward of 300 war orphans, daughters of those 
whose lives were given on plain and field in our recent war. I appeal to 
every true warm-hearted family to open wide your door and share your 
home comforts with these whose lot is about to be cast in your midst. I 
can cheerfully vouch for the intelligence and moral character of all these 
persons accompanying me,'' etc. 

Acting upon this information, a large meeting was held in Seattle to 
devise ways and means for the reception and care of the young ladies men- 
tioned. The response of the people was so generous that had the large 
number thus expected really appeared they would have received a royal 
welcome and have been cared for most tenderly. However, Mr. Mercer was 
doomed to many disasters in this undertaking, among w^hich was a scurrilous 
article which appeared in the New York Herald, slandering him and appeal- 
ing to the girls to stay at home. Everywhere the article was copied, and 


before he could get his references printed and thus counteract the calumny 
two-thirds of the young ladies had written him, enclosing the article and 
declining further consideration of the matter. 

After many disappointments and vexations he set sail from New York 
January 6, 1866, with about thirty young ladies and a number of families 
and a few single gentlemen. 

Several engagements were made during the voyage. Even the arch- 
promoter of the immigration movement could not resist Cupid's entangle- 
ments, as the following notice will show : 

MARRIED— On the 15th of July, 1866, at the Methodist Protestant Church, in this city, 
by the Rev. Daniel Bagley, Mr. Asa Shinn Mercer to Miss Annie E. Stephens, of Balti- 
more, Md. 

The following is from a record of the trip kept by Miss Harriet F. 
Stevens: **The steamer, with lessened quota of passengers, left New York 
January 6, 1866, and ran at once into a storm, which lasted two days. As 
we recovered our normal condition we began to look about us. With great 
satisfaction we found that we had a party of intelligent, amiable, sprightly 
people. The unmarried ladies are mostly from New England, and can boast a 
fair share of beauty and culture, which characterize the best society of that 
region. It is impossible that the lovely girls who are with us should have 
left the East because their chances of matrimony were hopeless. One must 
look for some other motive. Their bright faces, wit and sound sense are, 
however, such that they cannot fail to be desirable members of society in a 
new country." 

Be it said to the honor of Mr. Mercer that he believed his mission was 
one of immense benefit to the territory and of great good to those whom he 
might induce to come out here. His every action toward those who entrusted 
themselves to his guidance and care was that of a pure-minded American 
gentleman. The years that have elapsed have verified his predictions. The 
young women who came have proved a blessing to the commonwealth. In 
public and at the fireside their teachings and their example have conserved 
the well-being of the people. 

The following incident is related by Mr. J. B. Wyatt, one of Oregon's 
pioneers: **Just on the eve of my departure for a visit to my Eastern home 
(October, 1857), a friend, Jas. M. Blossom, called on me and said: *I want 
you to do me a favor and take this elegant apple (a Spitzenberg) with you, 
and, if possible, give the same to an old friend, Rev. Chas. Beeoher, a brother 
of Henry Ward, of Brooklyn, N. Y.' I packed the apple carefully and placed 
it in my trunk. Upon my arrival in Brooklyn I delivered the message and gave 
the apple to Henry "Ward, who remarked : *That is a fine sample of what Ore- 
gon can do in fruit. I cannot promise as to whether Charles will ever see it, 
as I am very fond of fruit myself.' *' 


The Portland Woman's Union 


HE Portland Woman's Union was established October 21, 1887, in 
view of opening and maintaining a boarding house for young, self- 
supporting women, where, at a moderate cost, they would have the 
comforts and protection afforded in a private home. For seven- 
teen years a board of faithful women has successfully carried on 
the work. The boarding house is situated on a quarter block at the south- 
east comer of Fifteenth and Flanders streets. The house is fitly appointed 
for the purpose. There are two parlors, two pianos, a library well supplied 
with books, and many of the best periodicals, a sewing room, and a laundry, 
all of which are open to the boarders day and evening. They also have free 
access to the lawn, fruit and flowers. 

The union being entirely out of debt, a brick addition to the house is 
contemplated. To promote the interests of women — always the central idea 
of the union — the scope of the work became broadened as soon as the board- 
ing hx)use was self -supporting. In 1896 the Woman's Exchange was estab- 
lished by the union, though only in a small way. For many years a case of 
fancy work in the corridor of the Hotel Portland seemed all that was ad- 
visable, but in November, 1903, an exchange in the true sense of the word 
was opened under the auspices of the Woman's Union, and the success has 
been gratifying. Many women have been materially helped thereby. 

The members of the union realizing that incompetency is the primary 
cause of suffering in the case of untold numbers of women, to the degree that 
''destroyed for lack of knowledge" could be written truthfully over many of 
their failures, questioned how can we add our mite to train and mould these 
to more thorough competency. Surely no better way could be devised than 
through the kitchen garden and sewing school to direct the lives of the 
women of the future. Mindful of this, the kitchen garden, with its three- 
fold object — to rescue the child from idleness and ignorance; to make the 
homes better and brighter; to make competent helpers — was opened in con- 
nection with classes in sewing. This industrial school was successfully 
carried on for four years, until the building in which it was held was sold. 
No other room being available, the kitchen garden was temporarily closed. 
The sewing department of the school is now held at the boarding house, and 
much interest is manifested by the mothers and the children as well as the 
faithful instructors. 

The Portland Woman's Union is glad to welcome strangers within its 
doors, and trust that they who find entertainment there may cherish a kindly 
remembrance of the home. 

sio. 10 






jy \\ 


The College Girl 

Oregon City Or. 

What becomes of the college girl, 

The girl of cap and gOMrn? 
Does she sit apart, aloft, alone^ 
A grim **bas bleu'* upon a throne. 

Wrapped in her own renown? 

What becomes of the college girl. 

The girl of lofty thought? 
Let our schoolrooms speak, where day by day 
Young pulsing hearts of plastic clay 

Are into beauty wrought. 

What becomes of the college girl, 

The girl of mother-heart? 
At the cradle side she kneels with pride — 
Her willing hands by love are tied 

To life's divinest art. 

What becomes of the college girl. 

The girl of book and pen? 
She is training sons, the future great. 
Creating heroes for the state, 

A mother unto men. 

What becomes of the college girl. 

The girl of classic hall? 
In social walk or civic strife. 
In church or home or school, her life 

Uplifts and sweetens all. 

What becomes of the college girl, 

From college classes flown? 
Praise spoils her not, nor blame dismays; 
Her cultured breadth gives power to raise 

A standard of her own. 

What becomes of the college girl. 

The girl of purpose broad? 
As girlhood's faith contagious burned, 
Her woman's prayer mayhap hath turned 

Some nearer unto God. 




AECI88A WHITE KINNEY was bom in Grove City, Penn., in 1854, and died 
in Portland, Or., January 6, IBOl. She was reared by Ghriatian parents in 
the United PreBbyterian Churcb, and in her girlhood was a member of the 
Harmony Congregation of Orove City, In this congregation her fatber, grand- 
father and great-grandfatber worabipped, She always spoke of tMs "as my 

home ehurcb." After tbe old building was removed and a new edifice erected, sbe placed 

in it a "memorial window" as a token of ber loyalty and affection. 

MIm White received ber primary education in tbe Grove City public school, and was 

later graduated from the State Normal Sebool of Pennsylvauia, with bigh honori^ showing 

such marked ability aa a teacher 

that she was immediately elected 

principal of the training school 

of Edinboro, Pa., where sbe 

taught with great acceptance. In 

tbe meantime the temperance 

crusade and its outgrowth, tbe 

Woman 's Christian Temperance 

TToion, were claiming public at' 

tention. Mies White studied 

carefully tbe aims and methods 

of this new organization, and 

soon became deeply impressed 

with the importance of its work. 

Sbe felt it her duty to take up 

the cause of temperance under 

that organization. She at once 

joined the White Bibhon ranks, 

and was elected president of the 

Grove City Union. She was soon 

called to take a place in the statp 

executive, in tbe position of su- 
perintendent of Scientific Tem- 
perance Instruction. In that po- 
sition she did a vast amount of 

work, lecturing, writing and 

pledging legislators to tbe sup- 
port of temperance measures. 

Miss TVillard said of ber that || 

next to Mrs. Hunt she was prob- 
ably tbe most able specialist in 

that department. She organised 

the State of Pennsylvania by coun 

tbe organization in that state was 


While w.iB next appointed a national organizer and lecturer, and in that capacity 
id every state and territory in the Union and also made a tour of Canada. Her success 
platform orator was remarkable. Her prcseni-e wnt magnetic, her manner winning, 

SOUVfiNlft or WEdTEttlf WOkfilf J41 

her arfrumentB forcible. She brought to the platform an intense enthusiasm which at once 
enlisted the interest of her audience. 

In 1884 Miss White was sent by the national officers to what was then Wa^ington 
Territory^ to assist the W. C. T. U. in a special campaign for securing the enactment of tem- 
perance laws. Under her persuasive eloquence and wise leadership, the most stringent tem- 
perance law ever presented to any legislative body was. passed unanimously by both houses 
of the legislature. Also, in spite of the bitter opposition of the liquor men and their fol- 
lowers, a bill was passed which submitted to the vote of the people the following June a 
prohibitory amendment, which resulted, later, in a grand victory. 

During the two lecture tours Miss White made through Oregon, she became acquainted 
with Mr. M. J. Kinney, of Astoria. In 1888 she was united in marriage to him and came 
to the far West to make her home in the little city by the Etea. She esti.blished a mission 
among the fishermen in the employ of her husband, and every Sunday afternoon the hall, 
which she fitted up and maintained at her own expense, was crowded with men and women. 
There she preached unto them the gospel of the crucified Christ. 

Mrs. Kinney was also much interested in educational matters, and was called * * the good 
saint of art and literature ' ' in her town. She assisted materially in establishing the public 
library in Astoria and was for some time the president of the board of directors. At the 
request of the presidents of the state universities and colleges, Mrs. Kinney made a tour 
of the state and delivered before the students one of her most carefully prepared lectures. 
She also lectured before teachers' institutes. Christian Endeavor and Sunday school con- 
ventions, and other gatherings. In 1894 she was elected president of the Oregon Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union, in which capacity she served until one year before her death^ 
when she was forced to resign on account of ill-health. 

Mrs. Kinney neglected no opportunity to advance the cause of righteousness. What- 
ever she could do to lift up humanity was done, more than a duty — a privilege. Her great 
heart was full of love and compassion. Her last illness was of short duration. She at- 
tended, as usual, the mid-week prayer meeting and joined in the service with her accus- 
tomed vigor and earnestness; she urged upon those present the great need for more spirit- 
uality in the church, and more thorough consecration to the service of the Master. On her 
return home she retired feeling as well as usual, but before morning she was taken violently 
ill. When the pain was allayed she said to her husband, ''I will go to sleep now.'' She 
fell into a coma from which she did not waken, and within forty-eight hours from the time 
she was stricken, her soul went out to meet the God who gave it. Her consecrated life 
was single-hearted and true. Her infiuence will rest like a benediction upon those who 
knew her, especially those who wear the white badge. 

A selection from Mrs. Kinney's last . lecture, ''Witnessing for Christ Against the 
Saloon," follows: 

''And what would you do about the saloon? The saloon, which tempts on every hand, 
the soul struggling back to God with cries for help and strength that would pierce the very 
heavens. The saloon that defies all law, that violates all ordinances, that desecrates the 
Sabbath, that debauches public officials, that intimidates witnesses, that perjures juries, 
that triply snares the hearts of men by linking to itself gambling and impurity. The 
saloon that entices through its side door young girls to be drugged and then destroyed. The 
saloon — Satan's own seat in politics. Answer me, Christian men and women." 

• « 





DDISON C. GIBBS passed his boyhood on a farm in Western New York. His 
early education was obtained at the little red scboolhouse on the corner of his 
father's farm. Later he went to a neighboring village, Springville, where he 
spent two years. From there he went to Albany and graduated from the State 
Normal School. He taught in the school at Watertown, devoting his hours out 
of school to the study of law, until he passed the examination, which entitled him to prac- 
tice in the courts of the State of New York. His father, Abraham L. Gibbs, of English 
descent, traced his ancestry back to the three Gibbs brothers who came to America before 
the Revolution. His mother belonged to a Holland Dutch family. She spent her early life 
and was educated in Troy, New York, a city which, in those days, boasted of the finest and 
most advanced school for young ladies in the state. To the cireumeitance that Rachel 
Scobey was educated in this school her children felt themselves indebted!. Addison was the 
only son. He had four sisters, who taught district schools until they were married. 

In 1851 Addison left his native state for California, where he remained a few months, 
when he went north to the Umpqua Valley in Oregon. Here he took up a donation land 
claim on the site now occupied by the City of Gardiner. 

One of his first ventures was a contract to carry the United States mail semi-monthly 
from the Willamette Valley to Umpqua City, at the mouth of the Umpqua River. For imme- 
diate Gfervice he purchased a cayuse pony and mounted it, with a flour sack for a mail bag. 
Thus equipped, he carried the first United States mail across the Calapooia Mountains into 
the Valley of the Umpqua. The mail carrier, who was hailed as he passed the far-apart 
cabins, stopped and, taking his flour sack mail bag into the cabin, emptied the bag and 
let each person select his own mail, tied up what was left and proceeded to the next cabin. 
This trip, however, he took but once officially, as he sublet the contract.. 

By President Pierce he was appointed Collector of Customs for the District of Cape 
Perpetua, which included Coos Bay and the Umpqua River, with the office located at Gar- 
diner. This office he filled until Buchanan was elected to the presidency, when he resigned 
and moved to Roseburg. During this term of office he visited his old home in New York 
State and while there was united in marriage, January 10, 1854, to Miss Margaret Watkins, 
of Springville. 

In 1858 Mr. Gibbs came to Portland, where he built a home and devoted his attention 
to the practice of his profession. He was an active member of the Taylor-Street M. K 
Church and was for many years the president of its board of trustees. For a long time 
he filled the same position on the board of trustees of Willamette University at Salem, 
Oregon. He represented Umpqua County in the Territorial legislature in 1853, and was a 
member of the State legislature in 1860. In 1862 he was elected Governor of the state, the 
duties of which office, made more onerous by the Civil War conditions, he performed with 
untiring Industry and fidelity. 

Many people thought Oregon was entirely out of the war zone, but Governor Gibbs 
secured proof of a rebel conspiracy and for months had men in his employ who reported 
to him the meetings and doings of certain friends of the Confederacy, who he had good 
reason to believe were planning to take the undefended State of Oregon out of the Union. 
The outcome of his vigilance during this period was afterwards described by one of this 
same band. ^'Yes, Gibbs got the best of us, and as things have turned out I am glad of it." 
After the close of the war. Governor Gibbs gave much attention to locating school lands 


for tbe state, which resulted in the reservation of ten thousand acres. This was the first 
move made in the state toward a perpetual school fund. 

At the legislature which convened in 1866, Governor Qibbs received the caucus nomi- 
nation of bis party for United States Senator. When the ballot wag taken he was two 
votes short of election — ^three republicans voting against him. Before the second ballot 
was taken he was told of the pecuniary needs of these bolters which must be supplied in 
order to secure their votes and thus his election. He refused to accede to their demands 
or to allow other persons to do so in his behalf. The balloting continued with no election 
until, near the close of the session, the Governor became convinced that he could not draw 
the recalcitrant members to him, and that if he remained a candidate the legislature would 
adjourn without electing a senator. He withdrew his name in spite of protests. Subse- 
quently he served several terms as District Prosecuting Attorney and as United States 
Attorney. Later he entered into a partnership with men in the State of Kansas and New 
York City. The business of this firm took him to England in 1884, where he remained 
until his death in 18S6. 

During his residence in London, Governor Gibbs spent his hours of leisure in studying 
social conditions. He was surprised at the number of Mormon missionaries and their ac- 
tivity, especially among the laboring classes. As he had made a study of the Mormons 
and their methods during all the years of their growth in Utah, he spent much time deliv- 
ering lectures in the communities where these missionaries had labored, that the people 
might not be misled. He also lectured for temperance organizations. His business would 
have' detained him two years longer, and his last letter home disclosed his plans for his 
family to join him there. In this letter he mentioned having taken a severe cold. This 
cold developed into pneumonia, and in two weeks he slept the sleep which knows no 
waking. The Oregon legislature had his body returned home, and the 9th of July follow- 
ing his death he was laid to rest in Riverview Cemetery, on the banks of the Willamette 
Biver. His widow and two daughters still reside in Portland. Charles, the only living 
son, has a home in Idaho. 


By MISS MARY LOCEY, Ironside. Or. 

N 1883 the present site of Ontario was a wind-blown, sagebrush desert, where 
sand piled in great heaps, and wild coyotes and black-tailed rabbits scurried un- 
molested. Only a pioneer could have dreamed of the resources waiting there 
to be developed; but the pioneer sees far into the future sometimes, and the 
very fact that the Oregon Short Line Railroad crossed Snake Biver and ran 
through Malheur County for twelve miles without a station was enough to arouse hopes 
that a station on the Oregon side might spring into a town and later grow even to a city. 
This dream is being realized. 

The first house in Ontario was built by William Morfitt, one of the firm who located 
and first laid out the town. The first business house was that of T. T. Danilson, which 
began operations in 1884. Thanksgiving day of that year was made memorable by a 
grand ball celebrating the opening of the Scott Hotel. (These men would wonder could 
they now see the numbers of fine brick business buildings that line Main street.) 

There followed quickly a drug store, a harness shop, and a blacksmith shop, while 
dwelling houses dotted the townsite here and there. One day Death claimed the black- 
smith, and a cemetery had to be located. This silent city on the hill has grown with the 

144 SOUVfiNlft Ot WBdTfiBK WOMfiK 

town, and lately measures for its improvement have been taken that will transform it 
into one of the most beautiful burial grounds of Eastern Oregon. 

Among the first buildings was the frame schoolhouse, which soon was filled to over- 
flowing. In 1894 a brick schoolhouse of four rooms was completed. This, too, after a 
time failed to accommodate the numbers that flocked there, and in 1902, by the com- 
mendable enterprise of leading citizens, the size of the building was . doubled, making 
a handsome structure of eight rooms, seven of which were occupied last year. 

Soon after the first schoolhouse was built the Congregational Church was organized, 
and a neat building erected. The honor of building this church, also of purchasing the 
bell that still rings from its steeple, is largely due to a little body of earnest women, who 
felt that the new town needed this purifying influence. Three other churches have been 
added, and the Presbyterians have made use of another building for church purposes, 
making five church societies in all. 

As the years passed secret societies gained a strong foothold, until to-day nearly all 
of the leading orders are represented, adding their share to the moral stamina of the 
place. For years the orders supported but one hall — that of the Odd Fellows; but lately a 
handsome new Masonic Hall, fitted up in the Lackey building, adds much to the comfort 
of those who frequent the lodges. 

So the town has grown along various lines, and numbers at the present time twelve 
hundred inhabitants. Its citizens have worked with tireless energy for its improvement. 
It now supports two banks (one a national), several large stores and many other business 
houses. Two telephone lines connect it with the surrounding country. Streets are being 
graded and sidewalks added rapidly, while trees taller than the buildings have sprung 
like magic from the fertile sandy soil that only asked for water that it might change 
from a desert to a garden. 

The prosperity of Ontario seems assured, for it lies in a most productive farming 
vicinity, where alfalfa makes three crops of hay in a season, and fruit grows in abund- 
ance. Besides it is the only convenient railroad point for a vast interior country, which 
pours into it yearly great wealth of wool and other products. Ontario ig also a^ very 
extensive shipping point for cattle, sheep and horses from the interior. The largest 
stockyard of Eastern Oregon is located there. 

In sinking wells about the town natural gas has been dif^overed, which will no doubt 
add greatly to the wealth of the city. One house is already lighted with it, and the ex- 
periment promises success. 

One of the most interesting features of the town is its salmon hatchery. At this 
point long rocks extending across Snake Biver prevent the - salmon from passing up the 
stream in the fall, and millions of eggs are secured for the hatchery. The new hatch- 
house is large and strongly built. It is 217x62 feet in size, and capable of holding thirty 
millions of eggs. The building contains row after row of troughs, through which water 
constantly rushes, raised from the river by a wheel, which sends up twelve hundred gal- 
lons per minute. Here one can watch the young salmon in all its stages, from yellow 
eggs to tiny fish. Last year by the end of the season there had been twenty-five million 
young fish turned into the river. 

The inhabitants arc justly proud of their thrifty little city and hope for great things 
in the future. Visitors, or persons seeking a location, are cordially invited to come and 
see for themselves that the story of the growth and resources of Malheur County's 
metropolis is not a myth. 


Grant County, the Place for Homeseekers 

RANT, though one of the interior coimtiea and not yet penetrated 
by railroads, offers invitinfr inducements to the homeseeker, since 
in its varied resonreea it is one of the richest aectiona of Oregon. 
NotwithHtandinR its high altitude, the climate could hardly be sur- 
passed. Extremes of heat and cold arc of short duration, and bliz- 
zards never prevail. The mountain air is clear and healthful. The pall of 
smoke that beclouds other sections during the summer months is unknown 
here. While an abundance of snow falls in the mountains, which insures a 


goodly supply of water for mining and irrigating purposes, in the valleys it is 
light, and hillsides adjacent are bare most of the winter. Through numerous 
springs and streams the whole country is supplied with cold mountain water. 
Delightful resorts for health and pleasure abound in mountain retreats and 
at the various mineral springs — soda and hot sulphur. 

Roads, good most of the year, make traveling throughout the county 
a delight, and the varying sceniTy a L-ontltnial charm. One of its chief scenic 
wonders is the Balmoral Hills, around which like stripes of ribbon riui most 
delicate grays and drabs or deepest reds and bronzes. These hills are situated 
near the sequestered little valley, Hamilton, itself a fair picture with its 
Gnltivated fields and pleasant country homes. 

In mineral richness Grant County ranks among the first in the state. 
From coal bed to gold deposit, both placer and quartz, there seems no limit 



to its stored wealth, which the enterprising citizens are gradually rescuing. 
Its vast area in good grass on mountain and plain affords sustenance to in- 
numerable herds. The equable climate makes stock raising a comparatively 
safe industry. This same fine climate is also conducive U> fruit growing, and 
Grant County's luscious fruits are not unknown. Notwithstanding the only 
means of transportatiou is by way of the "Prairie Schooner" — in other words, 
the slow and expensive freight wagon — Grant County's apples have found 
their way to the markets of the outside world. In this favored spot the worm is unknown, and the rosy-cheeked apples are unblemished by its devasta- 


tions. Garden produce, too, grows to perfection in Grant County's rich, black, 
sandy loam. Cereals are grown in some localities, and good roller flouring 
mills are in operation. 

Grant County enjoys the advantage over most sections of Eastern Oregon 
in its limitless forests. Though mostly of pine, tamarack, mountain ash and 
small mahogany abound. The streams arc skirted with willow and cotton- 
wood, and juniper is plentiful on the low hills. Woods for fuel and fencing 
purposes are accessible to every part of the county. 

Extensive coal fields have been found, and are being developed. Quarries 
of excellent building stone are numerous, and brick clay is also abundant. 

The settlement of Grant County began with the discovery of gold in 
1862, at the place where Canyon City is now situated. These rich placer mines 
attracted a great number of people to this locality, and, as is ever the case in 


gold excitements, many enterprising people flocked here. That this county 
from the beginning has been peopled by a strong, energetic, enlightened class 
is evidenced by good homes, commodious school buildings, and suitable church 
edifices, as weU as orderly citizenship. Forty-three district schools and three 
high schools are maintained. Many of the fraternal societies have organiza- 
tions in here, and they are well supported. 

There are in the county fifteen towns, six of which are incorporated. A 
telephone system connects these with the outside world. Two solid banks 
in Canyon City take care of the monetary circulation of the county. 

SawmiUs are in active operation working up Grant County's splendid 
trees into high grade lumber. There are also planing mills and sash and door 
factories. The long deferred railroad, it is believed, will soon be constructed 
into the heart of this county; then the homeseekers from less favored parts 
will pour in. Once there they will seek no farther. Many acres of public 
domain are yet open to settlement, and the price of cultivated land is not 
exorbitant. Within the boundaries of this most favored County of Grant are 
all things necessary to health, happiness and comfort. M. O. D. 


Thirteenth Street, Between Montgomery and HaU Streets. 

HE SCHOOL is for boys and girls, and includes under the flame management 
an elementary school, comprising primary and grammar grades, and a sec- 
ondary school, or academy proper, which fits boys and girls for Eastern and 
Western colleges. The academy has a board hall for girls at 191 Eleventh 
street, well appointed and under careful supervision. A catalogue of the 
school, giving full information as to courses of study, rates of tuition, and corps of in- 
structors, is published annually, and may be had on application at the office or by letter. 

Portland Academy was founded by the late W. S. Ladd, Esq., in accordance with a 
cherished plan of his to found a school in Portland which should offer to boys and girls 
the principles of a thorough classical and scientific education. The school was organized 
by the present principals in 1889, and in September of the same year openi^ed at 191 
Eleventh street, with three teachers and forty-two pupils. In 1892 the school was in- 
corporated, and three years later, having outgrown its first building, was removed to 
its present building, on Thirteenth street. The grounds on which the main building 
stands were given by the late Hon. H. W. Oorbett, and the building was erected by the 
trustees of the W. S. Ladd estate, who have since purchased lots on the eaelt side of 
Thirteenth street and erected on them two other buildings for the use of the school. 

The present enrollment of the school is about four hundred and fifty in all depart- 
ments, with a corps of twenty instructorSL Working libraries and chemical and physical 
laboratories have been a part of the appliances of the school from the first, and have 
been enlarged with the school's growth, and are fully adequate for the work of 
college preparation in all departments. In the sixteen years of the school's existence 
more than one hundred and twenty-five boys and girls have been fitted for college; more 
than one-half of this number have entered Eastern colleges; the rest have been about 
equaUy divided between the colleges of Oregon and California. 


Gillespie School of Expression 


i STABLISIIED in 1900, and the first institution in Oregon to be 
devoted exclusively to the study of the science and art of expres- 
sion, the Gillespie School is widely known, and has the patronage 
of some ol; the brightest and most gifted young people of the Pa- 
cific Northwest. 
It is the design of the school to give to its pupils such physical, mental, 
esthetic, and moral training as will lit them for the better pursuance of any 
vocation. "Growth" is the school-room motto, and as true crowth is a devel- 
opment from within, not an outside accretion, the instruction is adapted to 
the requirements of the individual. 

The course of training offered by the school is suited to those who are 
preparing for platform work, either as reader or speaker; to all who would 
become teachers of etoention, oratory, reading or lit- 
erature ; to those of all ages who are interested in the 
acquirement of physical health, beauty and grace, 
and bodily responsiveness, and likewise to that large 
nnmber of non-professionals who aspire to a wider 
field of culture, and a fuller development of their 
inherent powers. 

Oood library facilities, instructive and entertain- 
ing lectures, art studies, repertoire classes, and ample 
opportunity for public practice are provided for all ; 
regular students. I 

In addition to its purely educational advantages, 
the social and moral atmosphere of the school is of a 
high grade, tending to the building of character, the refinement of manners, 
and the cultivation of the real amenities of life. 

On the satisfactory completion of one of the three full courses, each of 
which embraces two years' work, students are granted, respectively, a Teach- 
er's, Reader's or Speaker's Diploma. Partial courses are arranged for those 
who are not looking forward to graduation. Two years of post-graduate 
study and practice entitles the student to a Professional Diploma. 
"The end and aim of all our work is the harmonious 
growth of the whole being." — Proebel. 


Women in Medicine 


HE practice of medicine as a whole appeals strongly to women, 
because of their sympathy for the sick and aflSicted and their innate 
desire to relieve such distress, while obstetrics and gynecology 
are the special branches that they naturally choose. 

The first record with reference to a woman's practicing ob- 
stetrics is in Qenesis. A midwife attended Rachel, the wife of Jacob, at the 
birth of her second son, Benjamin. History tells us that Rachel was in hard 
labor, and a midwife said: **Fear not; thou shalt have this son also." But 
I)Oor Rachel died and was buried, though there is no evidence that the mid- 
wife was responsible. 

Again, in the book of Exodus, it is related that the Egyptian king, who 
wished to deal wisely with the children of Israel lest they multiply too 
rapidly, gave command to the Hebrew midwives before the birth of Moses 
that they should destroy all male children at their birth. **But the mid- 
wives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, 
but saved the men children alive," giving the lame excuse that the Hebrew 
women were not like the Egyptian women, but were delivered before the 
midwives arrived. After the midwives disobeyed the king he gave his com- 
mand to all his people, saying: ** Every son that is born ye shall be cast 
in the river; every daughter ye shall save alive." That the king gave the 
command to the people, after the women had deceived him, would indicate 
that men did not practice obstetrics at that time; otherwise the king would 
have charged the men instead of the midwives to destroy the male children. 
There seemed to be no danger of **race suicide" in those days, or the king 
would not have issued this decree. 

I have looked into the history of the practice of medicine in ancient 
Egypt, as far as I have been able, in order to find out more definitely what 
part women took in the practice of medicine in ye olden times. Mythology 
ascribes to the Egyptian Isis the duty of watching over the health of the 
human species, and the discovery of many drugs. Hygeia, the daughter of 
Esculapius, and Ocyrone, the daughter of Chiron, were learned in medicine, 
and Esculapius is portrayed as followed by a multitude of both sexes who 
dispensed his benefits. 

The ancients considered that women had the right to the distinction of 
being, above all, the guardians of health, on account of woman's nurturing 
and caring for the young. So highly esteemed and worshiped by the Greeks 
was the Goddess Hygeia that a temple was devoted to this di\mity, and even 
in our day, when a doctor, upon receiving his degree, takes the Hippocratic 
oath, he not only swoars by Apollo, the physician, and Esculapius, the god of 
medicine, but by Health and Allheal — ^Hygeia and Panacea. 


Herodotus tells us that physicians were allowed to study one branch of 
medicine only, hence women would be given obstetrics as rightfully belonging 
to them. The midwives of ancient Egypt were doubtless educated and 
capable, for we learn from Ebers' ** Egyptian Princess" of the high position 
women held, that queens reigned in their own right, and that sons of royalty 
just as often traced their descent from the mother as from the father. 

In the eleventh century before Christ there existed a college of physicians 
in Egypt for both sexes, and several women acquired renown as teachers 
in the great school at Salerno, and various universities of Italy. 

Concerning Aima Mazzaloni, whose husband held the chair of anatomy 
at Bologna, **it happened that he fell ill, and she being a loving wife, sought 
to supply to him the place of his enfeebled powers, so she became an anatomist 
and delivered his lectures for him behind a curtain." It is interesting to 
note that she was offered a professorship in Milan, which she refused. How- 
ever, in the year 1806 Marie Delia Donne received her degree at Bologna and 
was appointed by Napoleon to the chair of midwifery in the university; 
and the names of Madames La Chapelle and Volvin stand pre-eminent in the 
annals of French medicine as the most renowned accoucheurs of their age. 

These various instances testify to the fact that in all ages there have 
been women who possessed qualities fitted to render them successful practi- 
tioners of the art, and even promoters of the science of medicine. 

The pioneer in the struggle for a medical education for women in America 
was Miss Elizabeth Blackwell. In the year 1849 she received her diploma 
as a leader of her class from the medical college of Geneva, New York. At 
the conclusion of her studies in America Dr. Blackwell visited Europe, where 
she was kindly received at St. Thomas, St. Bartholomew's, and a few other 
London hospitals. Here she met Florence Nightingale, and says she owes to 
her chiefly the awakening to the fact that ** sanitation is the supreme goal of 
medicine, itg foundation and its crown." 

More than two thousand years ago Christ gave the command to preach 
the gospel and heal the sick, and Dr. C. E. Swain, a graduate of the Woman's 
Medical College of Philadelphia, enjoys the honorable distinction, not only 
of being the pioneer woman physician in India, but the first woman physician 
ever sent out by any missionary society into any part of the non-Christian 
world. After some years of successful service in North India she accepted 
an appointment as resident physician at the court of the Raji of Ketri. 
Through the influence of this woman and other missionaries, the Punditi 
Ramabai, a high-cast Hindoo woman, came to this country and completed a 
course in medicine in the Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia. She 
then returned to her native country, and is working faithfully for the wel- 
fare of her less fortunate sisters. It was principally through Lady Dufferin's 
work that women doctors have received so much recognition in India. Prob- 
ably between 300 and 400 medical women are now working under the Dufferin 
fund, some in charge of hospitals, some as medical missionaries and a few 


in private practice. It is pood news to hear that similar work is being started 
by the French government in Algeria. The native women who are prevented 
by their social customs from consulting male doctors will now be able to 
consult qualified woman physicians free of charge. 

Dr. Yamei Kin is the first Chinese woman to take the medical degree in 
America, and she intends to do work among the Chinese in this country. 
Women physicians are doing good work in Persia, in China, and the imperial 
household of Korea has one employed. 

Dr. Anneta Newcomb McGee has the honor to be appointed to the United 
States Army, and did service in the Philippines. Last year she was elected 
president of the Spanish-American War Nurses. She kindly offered her 
services to the Japanese government, and was accepted, and for half a year 
she has been caring for the sick and wounded Japanese and Russians in the 
Mikado's hospital and aboard the Imperial Hospital Ship. 

While woman physicians are achieving honors at home and abroad, we 
must not forget their work in the Oregon Country. Dr. Mary P. Sawtelle 
was probably the first woman in the Pacific Northwest to practice regular 
medicine. She located in Salem in the early '70s, arid from there moved to 
California. Following her was Dr. Prances Carpenter Blumauer, a graduate 
of the Woman's College of Philadelphia, who is now enjoying her well- 
earned laurels in the City of Portland. 

Later we find the names of Dr. Owens-Adair, now residing in North 
Yakima, who is still in active practice. Dr. Lydia Hunt King, Dr. Denlinger 
and Dr. Helen Parrish have passed to the great beyond. Dr. N. J. A. Simons, 
of Vancouver, Washington, one of the pioneer workers, and a graduate of 
the Homeopathic College of Boston, has retired from the practice of medicine 
on account of loss of sight. Dr. Victoria Hampton stands at the head of 
the profession as an expert chemist, and when the testimony of minute chemi- 
cal analysis is required her authority is unquestioned. There are between 
two hundred and three hundred women physicians engaged in the regular prac- 
tice of medicine in Oregon, Washington and Idaho. 

The woman doctor of to-day asks of her fellow practitioner nothing but 
her right of equal advantages for her sex, and of the world at large the 
opportunity to prove for herself that the time-honored profession of medicine 
may be successfully followed by her daughtei's as well as her sons. 

In February, 1843, Mrs. Spalding was so sick it was feared she would 
not live. A Nez Perce chief said: **If it could be, I would gladly die in her 
stead that she might live to teach the people." 

"Shortly after my arrival at Portland, in '52," says Rev. John Flinn, **I 
attended a marriage ceremony, a family wedding. The minister officiating 
received a pair of gloves and fifty dollars in gold for his services." 





Work of Unitarian Women in the Pacific Northwest 


HE one person to whom more than all others the Unitarian Church 
of the Pacific Northwest owes its origin is Mary Ellen Frazar, who, 
together with her husband, Thomas Frazar, and their six children, 
came to Oregon in 1853. Both were natives of New England and 
thoroughly imbued with that spirit of liberal Christianity which 
at this era, largely owing to the influence of the saintly Channing, was rife in 
that section of our country. They found Portland a city of six thousand in- 
habitants and well provided with churches representing almost every denom- 
ination except the Unitarian, whose followers were neither numerous enough 
nor strong enough to have a society of their own. The Frazar family for some 
years held private services in their own home, but in 1863, having made the 
acquaintance of Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Burrage, also New Englanders of 
the same religious faith, the two women, in December, 1865, with five others, 
namely, ^Irs. Goodnough, Mrs. Cooke, Mrs. Wright, Mrs. Abbott and Mrs. Bur- 
rell, met at the Goodnough residence for the purpose of organizing a society 
**to promote and advance the cause," as the preamble reads. The organiza- 
tion effected two weeks later called itself the ** Ladies' Sewing Society,'* and 
afterwards were added the words **of the First Unitarian Society, Portland, 

Three years before this date the Rev. Thomas Starr King, of San Fran- 
cisco, a noted Unitarian minister and lecturer, had preached in Portland when 
upon a lecturing tour through the Northwest ; and in 1866, a few months after 
the formation of the Ladies' Sewing Society, Dr. Horatio Stebbins came to 
Portland by invitation and for three Sundays preached in the basement of the 
Baptist Church. It was during this visit that the first Unitarian communion 
and baptismal service was held, the latter being at the suggestion of Mrs. W. 
W. Spaulding, a New England woman, at which seven children were baptized. 
The silver service used in this communion was bought by the ** First earnings" 
of the Ladies' Sewing Society, and at this day is still in use. The society had 
in the meantime been holding its regular weekly meetings, where by sewing 
and getting up entertainments it was steadily raising funds for the cause it 
held so dear. In these ways and with an average attendance of but seven 
members, the society by the end of the first year had raised nearly four hun- 
dred dollars. The immediate result of Dr. Stebbins' visit was the formation 
in the following June of *'The First Unitarian Society of Portland, Oregon." 
And now these two societies bent all their energies to the purpose of build- 
ing a chapel and engaging a minister. By the end of 1867 an appropriate 
building had been erected upon Seventh and Yamhill streets. Their first pas- 
tor, the Rev. Thomas Lamb Eliot, with his wife and infant s(m, had arrived 
from St. Louis just in time to assist in the dedication of the new edifice. The 



cost of the two lots, building and fumiBhingB, had come to about four thoosand 
dollars, one-fourth of this sum being the contribution of the Ladies' Sewing 

It was not long after the arrival of the "young minister." as he at first 
was called, from his 
youthful appearance, 
before hU parish be- 
gan to realize that 
they were particu- 
larly fortunate in the 
minister who bail 
been selected for 
theui, as he possessed 
a combination o f 
qualities which es- 
pecially fitted him 
for the work, largely 
missionary, which 
lay before him in 
this new country, 
and which made his 
future pastorate the 
success it has proved. 
His wife, too, rarely 
endowed mtellec- 
tually and spiritu- 
ally, seconded his ef- 
forts for the good of 
the church and the 
community generally 
so that in this, their 
life work, they Ih 
bored together as 

Dr. Eliot did not 
confine his eflForta to 
the work of his 
church alone, bat 

from the beginning ^^■^- ^- ^ eliot 

took an active interest in all philanthropic and educational matters throughout 
the city and state. In all of this work he was ably assisted by the Ladies' 
Sewing Society. In 1876 whilst Dr. Eliot was absent for his health, never 
robust, a society was organized in the church called the "Christian Union," for 
the purpose of continuing the work of philanthropy, until this time carried 
on under Mr. Eliot's direction. Committees of the Christian Union, largely 
composed of women, kept up the work begun by their pastor of regularly via- 


iting tbe county jail, county farm, and insane asylum, a private institntion in 
East Portland, and carrying to them all, literature and good cheer. 

In 1880 Dr. Eliot and Miss Helen F. Spalding, at the time the president 
and vice-president of the Christian Union, inaugurated a series of lectures od 
Social Science, which were given in the chapel. These practical talks on Ed- 


ucatioD, Municipal Reform, Temperance and kindred Bubjects, carried on con- 
tinuously for eight years, paved the way in no small degree to the formation 
of most of the charitable institutions now doing such valuable work in the 
city and state ; to the amelioration of the bad conditions prevailing in the jails 


and county farm; to a law establishing in the state penitentiary a library at 
the expense of the state; and other important work. 

In 1879 the new Unitarian church edifice next to the chapel was completed 
and dedicated, and the name. ** Church of Our Father," bestowed upon it by 
Dr. Eliot. For seven years previously the Ladies' Sewing Society had been 
devoting its energies towards swelling the sum required for the building, and 
were able to give two thousand of the twenty thousand dollars that it cost. 
Mr. and Mrs. S. G. Reed gave twelve hundred dollars towards the expense of 
the fine organ; this being just half the sum it cost. 

And now, in 1892, as the name ** Ladies' Sewing Society" no longer in- 
dicated the real trend of its activities, it was changed to that of the ** Women's 
Auxiliary," becoming soon after a branch of the Women's Unitarian Con- 
ference of the Pacific Coast. Again in 1902, and this time at the instance of 
Mrs. Cressey, wife of the present pastor of the church, the Rev. George Cros- 
well Cressey, it changed its cognomen to one which will probably be its final 
one, calling itself the ''Woman's Alliance," and also joining the National Al- 
liance of Unitarian and Other Liberal Christian Women. 

Another important society of the Church of Our Father, started in 1886, is 
the Post Office Mission, whose work is the distribution of liberal religious 
literature through the mails and in other ways. The.Frazar Loan Library and 
the Free Reading Boom, both established by the late Mrs. Rosa F. Burrell in 
memory of her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Frazar, are managed by the 

Among the pioneer women in this society who lent an unfailing hand in 
all good work we would name Mrs. Lurena A. Spalding, Mrs. Betty Farmer 
and Mrs. Charles W. Burrage. 

It may not be out of place to mention here (although a little to one side of 
the denominational work of Unitarian women) three large bequests, the in- 
fluence of which will be felt in the religious, educational and philanthropic 
work of the Northwest for many years to come : $200,000 by Miss Ella Smith, 
one-half of which went to the Portland Library; $50,000 by Mrs. Rosa F. 
Burrell, placed in Dr. Eliot's custody; $2,000,000 by Mrs. S. G. Reed, the 
greater part of this latter sum to be used to erect an institution of learning 
known as the Reed Institute. These women were members of the Church of 
Our Father, and from the tenor of their wills one cannot but see what a deep 
impression the life and character of their beloved pastor had made upon them. 

It is now thirty-nine years since the Ladies' Sewing Society came into 
being, and of the seven women who formed it but one is living, Mrs. C. W. 
Burrage, of Canyon City, Colorado. It has held weekly meetings every Wed- 
nesday. Many thousands of dollars have been earned by its faithful members, 
and it has ever been an incentive and comfort to the psstor and the general 
society of the church. 

Dr. Eliot, who received the degree of Doctor of Divinity in 1889 from Har- 
vard University in recoj^nition of his faithful and efficient services in so many 
directions in the Northwest, after a service of twenty-five years, in 1892 re- 
signed his pastorate to younger men. He is still, however, actively interested 


in every movement for the public advanceuient, and as a member of many 
of the boards of the city and state organizations, finds his time more than 
occupied. Mrs. Eliot, who stands as a type of motherhood, has yet found time 
in her busy life to enrich the literature of the West by her pen, and she, as 
well as her husband, the Pastor Emeritus of the Church of Our Father, are 
looked upon as they deserve to be from the points of years and service as the 
\'irtual heads of the Unitarian Church of the Pacific Northwest. 

The Baby Home 

President of the Board of Directors 

HE BABY HOME is the outgrowth of a work begun many years ago 
by a few earnest women on the East Side. It was incorporated in 
March, 1899, and the change in management that year was followed 
by the erection of a building on a sightly block of ground, donated 
for that purpose, by Mr. and Mrs. J. W. Kern as a loving memorial 
to their infant daughter, whose death occurred the previous year. Mrs. Kern 
was president of the Home for some years, but owing to other demands upon 
her time and strength, she felt obliged to give this responsibility to others. 
She, however, was an honorary member of the board until her death a year ago. 

Nearlv five hundred different babies have been cared for under the hos- 
pitable roof of what we now call the old building — these from many and varied 
conditions of life. The majority have been of respectable but poor parentage ; 
children of widowed and forsaken mothers, dependent upon themselves for 
support, or of fathers, desolate and helpless when left with motherless babies ; 
others wholly orphans and often friendless. There have been some, too, of 
illegitimate birth ; but where is there more need of sympathy and kindness 
than toward those babies bom with a stigma that makes an additional burden 
in after life? Even though the number were much greater, if such can be 
helped to homes where they are welcomed and reared to lives of usefulness and 
self-reliance, can any one question the good results? 

Not all illegitimate children are from degraded parents. There are many 
heart-broken mothers whose one bitter experience has brought almost Un- 
bearable sorrow, to be borne through a life of regret and remorse. Great is 
the pity that the one who shared the sin, and ofttimes the chief in error, es 
capes the responsibility and extreme suffering consequent to the wrongdoing. 

Under the present administration nearly eighty children have been placed 
in homes for adoption, thereby bringing the childless home and the homeless 
child together and making both happier and better. This part of the work is 
certainly commendable and worthy of assistance and encouragement. 

In the management of the Home two principles are paramount — that no 
worthy parent be refused assistance; neither shall he or she be permitted to 



lose the feeling of natural responsibility and self-respect by being relieved of 
all parental obligation. Unless eircuinatanees make it absolutely impossible, 
some remuneration, even though it be not more than one dollar per month, 
is exacted; and, as it occasionally happens, when both parents are living and 
are able-bodied, full price for board is required. It should be stated, however, 
that these cases are rare, and would never be admitted to the e^iclusion of the 
more needy. 

At this writing (April, 1905), having outgrown the building that sixteen 
years ago seemed ample and built before the requirements were fully under- 
stood by the management, the Baby Home, with its increased family «"d its 
constantly growing need, is about to cross the threshold of n much larger 


building erected npon up-to-date plans and equipped with modem conven- 
iences and sanitary appliances. This Home, iinique in its mission and second 
to none for the purposes it serves, is the result of years of struggle, much 
careful deliberation and good management of the funds intrusted to its di- 
rectors. It is an object long hoped for, and its attainment may fitly be a 
source of pride. 


The Northern Indians used to bring their girls as soon as they arrived 
at the age of 15 to the Puget Sound towns for barter. As many as a dozen 
were sometimes seen in one canoe, with an old Indian and a squaw as 
guardians. They distributed them among the loggmg camps and ranches. 
The missionaries put a stop to this practice. 


The Woman's Christian Temperance Union 


HE public ear has ever listened eagerly to the stories of great battles, 

plans of campaigning, of the rallying of troops, told by those who 

have been in the thickest of the fight. And in taking up the pen 

to write the twenty years of campaign of the ** Grand Army of 

Reform" of Oregon — The Woman's Christian Temperance Union — 

we note the fact, as revealed from a research amid its archives, that it is a 

record of the grandest movement among women this state has yet had writ 

on the pages of her history. 

The peaceful warfare carried on by these faithful **home guards'' is 
replete with incidents of heroism, self-sacrifice, patient endurance and lofty 

Not alone as a total abstinence movement is it of historic importance, 
but as a distinctive woman's movement toward unifying them. The first or- 
ganization of Oregon women banded together for the development of a 
truer, nobler, higher womanhood. 

The first union was organized in Portland March 22, 1881, in the Hall- 
Street M. E. Church; the second at Albany in April, two dates of historic 
importance in Oregon. To-day those who look over the field occupied by 
hundreds of earnest workers cannot realize the many difficulties that con- 
fronted the pioneers in this work. The Christian women of the state were 
already overburdened with church duties, and were unaccustomed to any 
public work. In 1883, June 15, the state organization was perfected by Miss 
Frances E. Willard and her private secretary, Anna Gordan. The plan of 
work adopted at this first convention has been faithfully pursued, and has 
become effective as a means of starting educational forces that have told for 
the good of the state. Its purpose is to educate the children and the parents, 
to bring influence to bear upon pulpit and press, and to call into activity 
woman's latent forces. 

In 1836 there were 32 unions in Oregon. In 1891 there were 83, with a 
membership of 1900. The W. C. T. U. has made a record in establishing 
reading rooms. Seventeen cities have under its auspices opened tnese '•llgnt 
houses" on the shores of reform. Three unions own their headquarter build- 
ings — Corvallis, Salem and Albany. Corvallis bears the distinction of having 
the first building owned by White Ribboners on the Pacific Coast. 

The W. C. T. U. founded the Industrial Home for girls — afterwards 
turned into the Refuge Home. The first industrial exchange was conducted 
by the Portland Union in early years. The Baby Home was foimded by 
the East Portland W. C. T. U., with seven dollars and unlimited faith, the 
records say. 

For six years Multnomah County Union conducted a **Noon Rest for 
Working Girls, ' ' the first movement of the kind in the Northwest, and it paved 


the way for similar work by other societies. The W. C. T. U. was instru- 
niental in placing a matron in the Union Depot in Portland, and fired the 
first ^m in the war against child labor and in support of compulsory education. 

A well-organized lecture bureau is maintained. Headquarters are estab- 
lished at Ashland and Gladstone during the annual Chautauqua Assemblies, 
and also at the State Pair. The Flower Mission has carried joy and bright- 
ness into many an erstwhile dismal sick chamber. The work among sailors 
has exerted a far-reaching influence for good. 

Not least in all the wprk for **God and home and native land'' accom- 
plished by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union is the influence of the 
work upon its members. Under it they have gro\vTi stronger, broader, more 
loving and more noble. 

The following legislative enactments were secured through the efforts 
of the members of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union: 

In 1884 the scientific temperance instruction bill. 

In 1899, after the third efl^ort, a bill for the protection of young girls was 

enacted by which the age of consent was raised from 14 to 16 years. This 
bill sufi'ered much in the hands of the legislature of 1905, be it said in shame 

upon mankind. ' 

The anti-narcotic bill, prohibiting minors the use of tobacco, was passed 
in 1889. 

Secured from legislature in 1889 for the Refuge Home, established by 
the W. C. T. U., an appropriation of $5000, which amount was granted by 
succeeding legislatures, and is now raised to $6000. 

Anti-tobacco law, amended in 1891. 

In the framing of the charter of the Soldiers' Home in- Roseburg, the 
W. C. T. U. took a live interest, and secured the insertion of a clause in the 
charter prohibiting the sale of intoxicants within one mile of the home. 

By a law secured in 1893, police stations are provided with matrons. 

John Killin and family came to Oregon from Iowa in 1845, and were the 
first to settle south of the Calapooia River, at a point about three miles below 
the present town of Brownsville. There were no neighbors but Indians, and 
they were troublesome on account of their thieving propensities. First one 
thing, then another disappeared, but Mr. Killin seemed reluctant to attempt 
to recover the stolen property. At length a milch cow was stolen, whereat 
Mrs. Killin, after vainly entreating her husband to seek its rescue, determined 
to take the initiative. Accordingly, she armed herself with a butcher knife, 
went to the chief's camp, found the cow, cut the retaining rope, brandished 
her weapon in the face of the astoimded chief and his subjects, and drove the 
beast back to her cabin. From that time Mrs. Killin was known as a **Skookum 
Kloochman" — strong-hearted woman — and thereafter the property of the fam- 
ily was not molested. Mrs. Killin is still living, and is now in her ninety-third 
year. — (George H. Himes.) 


The Woman's Emergency Corps 


AVING been president of the Emergency Corps and Red Cross So- 
ciety of Portland, Oregon, during the years that our Oregon men 
were in active service at the Philippines, I am asked to give some- 
thing of the story of the work performed by that organization dur- 
ing the exciting days from April 26, 1898, when the first call for 
help came until all that was left of our men from Oregon came home again 
to take up the threads of their tangled skein and work them back into straight 
warp and woof. To turn the demoralized life of a volunteer soldier back to 
the routine of every-day life calls for all that is best in man. 

The task of telling this story is not an easy one. All outward show of ap- 
preciation has been given and received, and only the remembrances are left 
in the minds of these fourteen hundred women of Portland who, with untiring 
zeal, worked for the soldiers during the Spanish war. The women of this city 
were tremendously in earnest on that day (the 26th of April), when there 
was a call through the Oregonian for all loyal and patriotic women to as- 
semble at the Armory, prepared to co-operate with state oflScials and men of 
every degree in finding ways and means to help equip our young soldiers 
for the seat of war. So quick were the flashes of enthusiasm at that meeting 
that before many of us realized the detail and breadth of the work which 
was to fall into our hands we were an organization and ready for any work 
of emergency which might fall to us to do. I think it not too much to say that 
a better organized body of women were never banded together than these 
loyal women, who gave their personal efforts, their money, their influence, 
many of them their whole time and strength to the work of making the life of 
our new-born soldiers bearable while away from the environment of home and 
friends and thrown into that uncivilized element in the Philippines. Not a 
soldier from any state in the Union passed through Portland unnoticed or 
unfed. Words of encouragement by our enthusiastic workers have brought 
by correspondence a bountiful return of thankfulness and good will, not only 
to the women of Oregon, but to the State of Oregon, with its wealth of roses 
which brightened their stuffy and dismal cars en route to California. After 
three and a half years the Emergency Corps and Red Cross Society brought 
its official career to a close in Portland. No undertaking in the cause of 
humanity ever received greater assurance of the heartfelt gratitude of more 
men and women than this, and the records bear testimony to its phenomenal 


What Chri^ianity Has Done for the Indian Woman 

Missionary at Neah Bay. Wa.sli. 

HRISTIANITY means everything to the Indian woman; not only 
life and light, but also love and hope. It found her chattel, it 
made her owner; it found her man's slave, it made her his com- 

An Indian who knew all the depths of woman's wretchedness 
among his people said: '*The poorest white man makes a better husband 
than the best Indian.'* 

**She is mine, I bought her, I can do as I like with her,'* is often heard. 

On this plea of ownership even an educated Indian, unchristianized, 
kicked and ill-treated the pretty little woman who had been bought for him. 

When an Indian woman becomes a Christian, her whole life proclaims it. 
As a daughter in a Christian family she has many privileges denied her less 
favored sisters. With her brothers she shares the love and care of both 
parents. She is no longer regarded as a piece of merchandise to be sold to 
the highest bidder. Her wishes are consulted in the choice of a husband, 
and her father, instead of receiving gifts, helps the young people to start in 
life. She is mistress in her new home. If she does npt please her husband 
in every particular she is not liable to be traded or sold, as in the old days. 
Neither is she required to share her home with two or three women with 
equal rights. Her husband no longer eats the best of everything while she 
waits upon him. They sit together, and share w^hat provisions they have, 
and want bites him as well as her. When he visits friends she accompanies 
him. In everything she is his companion and counsellor, and purse holder 
as well. 

Even a heathen husband appreciates a Christian wife. He knows such 
a one can be trusted, and she is more industrious. Not a few Indian men 
have been won to a new life through their Christian wives. One good woman 
came in tears because she had not been living a true Christian life before 
her heathen husband. She said he would find fault and she would get **high." 
He would laugh and say, '*I'm better than you; I don't get mad at every- 
thing." She said with evident emotion: **I don't" want to give Jesus a 
bad name. I want my husband to be a Christian." 

Insofar as they know the right they strive to do it. 

If a Christian Indian woman takes the burden of the work, it is because 
she desires to do so. Some of them still think it a disgrace for the men to 
do certain kinds of work. They are like an old Scotch woman in the by- 
gone days, who indignantly asked: *'D'ye think I'd see my mon under a 
coo? Nae, nae, I'd reyther milk twal coos alane every nicht." This pride 
dominates some Indian women. They look up to their husbands and serve 



them still, but the love that prompts it is wholly unlike the old slavish fear. 
They work as hard, but with a new motive. 

The Indian woman now knows the children playing about her door will 
not be torn from her. In heathenism time if a woman had no children, or 
her children died, it was considered a sufficient reason for putting her away 
for a younger, stronger woman. This is not allowed by Christian Indians. 
The only living child of a Christian chief had no children. He wanted to 
follow the old custom and put his wife away, but his father would not per- 
mit it. He said: '*If God thought you could take care of children He 
would have given them to you. Keep the wife youjve got.'' 

An old woman, talking about her family, said : ' * I do not know why my 
children died.*' Then she added: ** Perhaps they were tired." She was 
as good a shot as her husband, and day after day she trudged by his side in 
the chase with her babe on her back. In the evening she prepared the camp- 
fire and cooked while he rested. Her work was varied. Sometimes she 
examined the traps and skinned the animals she found therein ; at other times 
she laid low the prowling bear or lordly deer and prepared their hides for 
market. Altogether it was a **hard life." When her babe, sickened through 
its mother's incessant toil, fell asleep, it was she who stripped the birch of 
its covering and in the soft fold of the birch bark laid her little one, and 
buried it in a grave dug by her own hands. She would tell you her husband 
was not unkind ; it was only the custom. Her mother heart was wrung when 
she laid it away. **It will be mine, mine, mine there," she said, pointing 
her long, bony arms upward. 

Christianity means the breaking up of old customs and the bringing in 
of new duties. When an Indian woman ceases to do a man's work, she 


learns the household arts. It is an interesting sight to see her seated on the 
ground with a child on each side whom she is teaching to sew. Their 
Christianity may be crude, but it leads to a new life, and the brightness 
of this new life is vivid when contrasted with the impenetrable gloom of the 

Mrs. Jane Gage Goodhue Thomas contributors this interesting: incident of 
crossing the plains: **The road was strewn for hundreds of miles with dis- 
carded things from overloaded wagons — food, bedding, wearing apparel, even 
trunks full of ball dresses, books, furniture, machinery — everything, in fact, 
that could be mentioned. On the Platte River, where we camped one evening, 
we noticed a white tent in the bushes near by. Upon examination there was 
found pinned to the tent a note which read, *Died of cholera.' Inside was a 
neatly-made bed and a trunk full of woman's clothing. Beside the tent was 
the grave. The dead were buried by putting in a layer of earth and then a 
layer of prickly pear, alternately, to prevent wild animals from digging the 
bodies up. At Fort Laramie the wagons were searched and all liquors con- 
fiscated. ' ' 


Women's Clubs in Oregon 

Secretary Portland Woman's Club 

LUBS organized by women, and for women exclusively, have for 
many years been a feature in our far Eastern states, having started 
in New York and Massachusetts. The movement gradually moved 
west through the middle section of the country over the Rockies, 
to California, Oregon and Washington. 
The first women's club in Oregon, **The Thursday Afternoon Club," of 
Pendleton, was organized in 1893, the members devoting their time to litera- 
ture. After twelve years this club is still in existence and doing good work. 
It has been a characteristic of women's clubs that, once started, they steadily 
grow; no going back or disbanding. In 1894 the town of La Grande organ- 
ized a Musical Club. Also in that year the little town of Granite started an 
association called **The Daughters of Progress.'* In 1896 the ** Portland 
Woman's Club" came into existence and took for its motto, *'Take counsel 
with common sense." 

Southern Oregon also fell into line, with women's clubs at Grants Pass, 
Ashland, Roseburg, and the movement crept up the Willamette Valley to 
Salem, Eugene and Oregon City. 

'*The Portland Woman's Club," the largest club in the state, now num- 
bers two hundred and thirty members. Its object is to secure concert of ac- 
tion in intellectual, philanthropic, and social activities. It has been instru- 
mental in gaining needed improvements in the city. To the club is due the 
election of a woman on the school board. Its members stand ready to give 
help to all needed reforms. It has twelve well organized departments and 
maintains two scholarships in the School of Domestic Science and two in the 
Manual Training class in the Y. M. C. A. 

Portland has numerous other clubs; some are devoted to study alone, 
either literary or musical; one. the Forestry Club, whose members are study- 
ing the best methods of preserving the forests of Oregon; a Mothers' Club and 
a Teachers' Club, giving time and thought to the best interests of the children. 

In 1899, realizing that in unity there is strength, the clubs united to form 
a State Federation. Meetings are held biennially. This state organization 
joined the National or General Federation of Clubs in 1901, thus making a 
connecting chain from the smallest to the largest. While the State Federation 
includes only thirty-five clubs, there are in the state not fewer than one hun- 
dred organized woman's clubs. In this body there are standing committees 
on education, library, domestic science, civics, Oregon history, reciprocity, 
exposition, Chautauqua, legislation, industrial and forestry. Although but 
few, if any, individual clubs carry out all the lines of work suggested by the 
Federation, some of thehi are represented in each of the clubs. Special work 
is also being effectively pursued. The maintenance of free reading-rooms in 


the smaller towns; rest-rooms for country women, and co-operation of civic 
committeea with citizens' leagues for the betterment of public conditions, are 
some of the special features; also the preservation of old landmarks which 
merit more than a passing notice. 

Through the efforts of the Sorosis Club of The Dalles, the old government 
barracks have been rescued from decay and will be used in the future as a 
home for rare pioneer and archaeological relics. The Woman's Club at Ore- 
gon City has also been especially active along this line, and through it historic 
buildings will be preserved. This club is also making an effort to perform a 
long-deferred duty to the memory of Dr. John McLoughlin in erecting to 
him a memoi^al statue. 

The efforts of other clubs in exposition work are notable. The clubs of 
Washington County have put into the hands of the women on the farms one 
thousand pint jars to be filled with fruits to be given as souvenirs to visitors 
at our great Lewis and Clark Exposition. The generous response of the clubs 
to the call of the Sacajawea Statue Association for funds is praiseworthy. Co- 
quille and Independence rank first. Coquille, by promptly contributing five 
times the amount asked for the fund, unless outdone, will have the privilege 
of naming the woman to unveil the statue. Independence, being the first to 
respond with a contribution, will get the flag that enshrouds the statue before 
its unveiling. 

The work that signalizes most this club movement as a force for good in 
the land is that accomplished in the legislature. The club women of Oregon 
have taken a prominent part in the legislative work of the state, aiding in the 
agitation for better laws for women and children, as well as for general reform 
legislation. Among the laws passed at the session of 1905 were the laws pro- 
viding for Indeterminate Sentence, the Parole Law, the Juvenile Court Law, 
all of which mark a distinct advance in the method of caring for the criminal 
population of the state. One of the most important laws, however, and one for 
which the women have been working for the past ten years, is the one provid- 
ing for the transportation of insane patients under the care of asylum attend- 
ants instead of by the sheriffs or their deputies. 

The Child Labor Law and the Compulsory Education Law were strength- 
ened through important amendments. The club women of the state have been 
esi)ecially active in the agitation for the Child Labor Law. They were also 
instrumental in the enactment of a State Library Law and a law to adopt 
the Oregon Grape as the state flower. 

This club movement, becoming so universal, is not the result of one cen- 
tral thought, as in the churches and fraternities, but the marshaling upon a 
common plain of all the forces for good that have their indwelling in the 
heart of woman. 


Council of Jewish Women 


BGANIZBD in 1895 for self-help and improvement, the Conncil of 
Jewish Women has found its highest sphere in helping others. The 
history of the Portland section of the Council of Jewish Women 
differs probably only in name from that of the many other sections. 
Through years of struggle, indifference, and lack of co-operation, 
has the Council survived, growing stronger by overcoming each and every ob- 
stacle until to-day it is a recognized factor for good in the work of the com- 
munity. Its present membership is 280. 

The most hopeful feature of our organization lies not in our numerical 
strength, but rather in the quality of that strength, which has enabled us and 
will enable us to do not only the things that uplift and improve ourselves, but 
also the things that strive for the upliftment and betterment of humanity. 

Through our monthly programs have we succeeded in bringing together 
the reform Jewess and her orthodox sister, giving to both a common interest 
in Jewish thought, Jewish history and the Jewish woman's relation to the 
non-Jewish world. The Jewish woman does not take readily to organization 
work outside of the field of charity, and so much of our work has been ex- 
perimental and much effort wasted — ^no, not wasted, for we have been 
awakened and the future is all before us. 

In the study circle under Dr. Stephen S. Wise have we been led through 
the historical, prophetical and poetical books of the Bible, this year's work 
being the study of the apocryphal literature. The Portland section feels that 
it has advantages second to none in this work. It is not remarkable, there- 
fore, that our class in the study of the Bible should be the subject of inquiry 
from women of other clubs and other churches, many of whom consider it a 
privilege to receive the benefits of this class. 

The industrial and educational work has proved the center about which 
much revolves, and it has kept pace with our growth. It has been encourag- 
ing in this part of our work to note the growing numbers of women who are 
interesting themselves in the active conditions and problems of the working 
world, for uutil lately comparatively few women had any conception of the 
needs of life outside of the four walls in which they live. 

The growth of this work represents the growth of the Council itself. 
Beginning as humbly as did the body that created it, it still contends with 
obstacles and problems, and it will continue to overcome them. 

This year marks a special triumph, as, through the co-operation of the 
Altar Quild of the Temple Beth Israel and the entire Jewish community, a 
** Neighborhood House" has been erected. 

The various schools and activities connected with this work are sewing, 
domestic science, manual training, drawing, gymnasium, library, free reading 


room and kindergarten. During the past year two hundred children have 
taken advantage of the opportunities offered by us, and we hope as the new 
building marks an era for us it may be but the beginning of a newer and 
greater effort on our part, the results of which we may yet see in the future 
citizens of our state. 

A Scrap from an Old Diary 

By MRS. E. M. WII^SON, The Dalles. Or. 

N September, 1851, I was riding from Albany to Forest Grove. 

where I was then engaged in teaching. Only for short distances 

was there anything that could be called a road for wheeled vehicles. 

Much* of the way we rode over a grassy trail, and everywhere the 

'*ooihut" was in the open. 

The few-and-far-between settlers, as soon as was possible, had a corral 
fence for cattle and horses if they were fortunate enough to have any, and a 
field for grain, but nowhere could a fence be found on both sides of the way. 
The day waned; we met no one; we passed no one as we rode. It was a 
delightful ride, though a lonely one. Several times from adjoining thickets 
we saw the faces of deer steadily gazing at us with their penetrating eyes 
wholly without fear. 

We were still many miles from our destination and very tired (at least 
one of the riders was), and it was decided that the next cabin (there was 
nothing else) should be interviewed to see if possibly supper could be ob- 
tained. As we turned the bend of a large hill, somewhere in Yamhill County, 
we came in sight of a man plowing in the open. At some distance was a 
cabin, and a fence enclosing a piece of land for gardening. My escort rode 
to the plowman to make inquiries, and I to the cabin. Two children, about 
4 and 6 years of age, were standing by a rude stile. I asked them to tell 
their mother that I wanted to speak with her. They made no reply, but 
steadily stared at me. **Go call mamma," said I. There was no response. I 
then dismounted, wondering that no motive of interest or curiosity had caused 
the cabin door to open, but still all was silent. I said to the oldest: **Take 
me where mamma is.** She readily took my hand and led me through the 
tall rye grass and stopped by a newly-made grave. 

Stony Point was at one time an Indian burying ground. The dead were 
put in canoes on scaffolds. Years later some of the oyster men turned the 
skeletons out and patched up their coffins and used them for oyster boats. In 
one of the skiffs was found the petrified body of an Indian. It was carried 
on board a vessel in the night and shipped to some museum. 


The Woman on the Farm 


HILE the tendency of the city is to destroy the simplicity of home 
life, and to substitute for it the apartment house, the flat, the 
hotel, the club, and innumerable cheap amusements away from the 
home, it is quite the contrary in the country. Never before was 
the woman on the farm striving so hard to make her home attract- 
ive as now. She reaches out to draw from art and science all of the beautiful 
that she can afford, and such inventions and conveniences as will shorten and 
ease her labor, and so give her more leisure for self-culture. 

The woman on the farm is being taught, largely by the Grange, that she 
is a valuable citizen, and has a leading part to play on the stage of life. So 
she respects herself and her work more than she did, even a decade ago. She 
dresses better, practices physical culture, takes a little inore rest; reads 
more magazines and books ; makes herself a better companion to her children 
and husband; takes more outings to coast and mountains; camps with her 
family at the State Fair and the Chautauqua Assembly, and is in general a. 
much more cheerful and interesting woman than she has ever been. With 
our correspondence schools; with modern languages taught by phonograph; 
with art reproductions for 1 cent apiece; with the traveling library; with 
current literature at club rates; with lecture courses and farmers' institutes; 
with stereopticon views of every famous object on the earth's surface; with 
graphophone records of every fine singer, actor, speaker and orchestra, the 
woman on the farm is not so far lacking in general information as one may 
suppose. Much of culture and society polish is denied her by reason of her 
secluded life. But there is a compensation in the imiverse which gives us on 
one side what we have missed on another. So the woman of the farm, while 
lacking much in "style" and society small talk, has a comprehensive and 
practical knowledge of many things. She is an independent and all-around 
serviceable person. Indoors or out she can **lend a hand" where there is 
need. If her husband falls ill or dies, she can manage the business of the 
farm and bring up the children. Husband and wife on the farm are very 
close partners in all that concerns their welfare. It is the ideal family life 
of loving co-operation. To all the members of these ideal rural and suburban 
homes, the sweet home interests come first. Everything circles around home 
and mother. There are few distractions, and no unwholesome dissipations 
to draw the children out at night from their mother's influence. To prove 
the high character of our country women, and their devotion to love and duty, 
we have only to point out the many great men and women who have gone 

SIG 12 


forth from these farm homes, to shine in every sort of high position, and to 
reflect honor upon their bringing up. 

The rural free delivery of mail and the rural telephone are great boons 
to the isolated woman on the farm. She is wishing with all her heart for an 
enlarged parcels post, so that she may buy more freely from the city merchants. 

In the matter of money, the woman on the farm is more independent 
than her city sister. She earns her pin money by selling poultry, butter and 
eggs; picking wild berries; making jelly and jam for the city people who go 
away for the summer; taking summer boarders; picking hops; peeling the 
/ chittim bark, and in various other ways. Some do literary and art work. 
One Oregon girl bachelor, being weary with working for others at housework 
and sewing, now lives alone, on a few acres of land, and depends upon the 
revenue from two cows, one sow, and a hundred hens. Two women in the 
Willamette Valley do all their work on a large farm, except the plowing. 
They raise registered cattle and sheep, and have a few acres in native huckle- 
berries. One old lady gets her pin money from three acres in cherry trees 
and currant bushes. 

^ Leadership among women asserts itself in the country as in towns, and 

the church and Sunday school work goes on much the same. All social gath- 
erings are difficult to keep up because of the scattered homes. For this 
reason a woman 's club does not flourish in the country, nor do literary societies 
and reading circles. Not many women have a driving horse at their dis- 
posal, to go at will, without interfering with the farm work. But wherever 
; a Grange is established no lack is felt in social or educational matters. The 
Patrons of Husbandry is an ideal order for the country people, including as 
it does the whole family from the 14-year-old child to the great grand parents. 
When it was organized, about forty years ago, Miss Carrie Hall, of Boston, 
Mass., earnestly urged the seven founders of the new order to admit women 
on an equality with men, and it was done. That was a bold and progressive 
step for that day, and the women of the Grange have ever held Miss Hall in 
grateful memory for her courage. 

The Grange upholds woman's suffrage in theory and in practice. Every 
honor, distinction, and office is open to the woman who, by her character 
and her ability, can win her way. Thus the women of the Granere learn to 
debate and discuss all practical and intellectual subjects side by side with 
the men. Women of the Grange are interested in the same things that 
call forth the efforts of local woman's clubs. They see that cemeteries, school, 
and church grounds are kept in neat order, and that trees, vines, and shrubs 
are set out wherever they can be protected and watered. They inspect the 
sanitary conditions and the water supplj'- of their district schoolhouses. 
Matrons of Husbandry are in the advance in urging the addition of nature 
studies, school gardens, and the work bench to our country school system. 
They wish especially to see their children educated towards the farm and 
not away from it. 


The women of the QraDge cultivate tfae true spirit of hospitality. All 
who come enter into and ahare their family life. Neighborly kindnesa to the 
sick and sorrowing is abundantly expressed in farm communities. While 
not a trained nurse, the modem woman on the farm informs herself as to the 
approved methods of caring for the sick and relieving accidental hurts. In 
the Grange women learn to co-operate in many ways, and the lesson is broaden- 
ing and beautifying their lives and homes. 

All honor to this true woman upon the farm as she sits enthroned among 
her jewels — ^the sturdy sons and daughters who will rise up and call her 
blessed ! 

"Yes, after the strife and weary tussle 

When life \s done, and she lies at rest. 
The nation's brain and heart and muscle, 

Her sons and daughters shall call her blest. 

"And I think the sweetest joy of heaven. 

The rarest bliss of eternal lifi". 
And the fairest crown of all, will be given 

ITnto the wayworn fanner's wift*." 



The Woman's Relief Corps 


I HE Woman's Relief Corps, the auxiliary to the Grand Army of the 
Republic, numbering now almost 150,000 members, is the largest 
beneficent and patriotic organization in the world. It was organized 
in 1883 in Denver, Colorado, following a call by Commander-in- 
Chief Paul Vandervoort. From a small band of charter members, 
it has grown beyond all anticipation in numbers and in bounteous charity. 

The Relief Corps is organized to give, not to receive. Loyal women, 
whose names are interwoven with professional and social activities, whose 
hearts beat always in sympathy for the imfortunate, have been proud to have 
their names upon its rolls. 

The Oregon department of the Woman's Relief Corps was organized 
January 28, 1885. Later departments were organized in all the other states 
in the old Oregon Country. There is now in Oregon a membership of over 
3000. Not so large as in the states of the East, but relatively equal to them 
in all its activities. Through the Corps thousands of dollars have been given 
for relief; a liberal contribution has been made to the fund to purchase the 
Andersonville Prison grounds, now converted into a National Park. It also 
assists generously in the yearly decoration of the soldiers' graves in the South, 
in the relief of the flood sufferers in different states, in the building and fur- 
nishing of homes and hospitals, and contributes to a fund now being raised 
to build cottages at the Soldiers' Home so that husband and wife may spend 
their last days together in comfort, the guests of a grateful people. The 
widowed have been assisted in their home needs; the orphans have been 
cared for and placed in private homes or schools, or, if need be, provided with 
books and clothing. 

The Woman's Relief Corps co-operates with the Grand Army of the 
Republic in patriotic teaching, in humane instruction, and in the precepts of 
peace and arbitration. They make a special effort to promote the observance 
of June 14, the birthday of our flag, and also to induce all the schools to pro- 
vide a flag. So far as is known no school is now without one. The corps 
is engaged also in patriotic teaching in the Philippine Islands, in Cuba and 
in Porto Rico. Memorial day is held sacred by the members as less a holiday 
and more a holy day. Withal, children are taught, not only to know and 
honor the dead, but to reverence the gray-haired veterans, who walk the 
streets with slow and faltering tread. Thus by associated effort, accompanied 
by active service in doing the lesser things day by day is made up the aggre- 
gate of the work of the members of the Relief Corps. In making the joys 
of others do they find their own. 


Mrs. Catherine A. Coburn 


NE of the early emigrants who set ont on the Oregon trail in 1852 
was John Tiicker Scott. Anions the larjfe family of children that 
I accompanied him across the plains was the subject of this sketch. 
At an early age she became the wife of John R. Coburn, who eleven 
years later died, leaving his young wife lo bear alone the responsi- 
liility of providing for and rearing their four tittle children. With the courage 
of the true mother she entered upon this task. Her first effort was in the 
public school at Canemah, which she 
taught for four years. She then took 
charge of the Forest Grove school during 
the two succeeding years, 

In ISli Mrs. Coburn entered upon her 
editorial career as associate with her sis- 
ter, Abigail Scott Duniway, editor and 
publisher of the New Northwest, a jour- 
nal of aseressive force and literary merit. 
In this, her new calling, Mrs. Coburn J 
evinced a rare degree of journalistic I 
ability At the close of five years' se 
ice in this position she took charge of the I 
Portland Daily Bee, a journal of force 1 
and influence in its time. 

In 1880 Mrs. Coburn became editor of 
the Evening Telegram, and in 1888 she 
was transferred to the editorial staff of 
the Daily Oregonian, where she still re- 
mains. It is in the columns of this paper 
that Mrs. Coburn 's characteristic work 
appears. Her strict training in the school 
of pioneer experience, her acquaintance with the men and the women who have 
bnilded this commonwealth, her familiarity with the personal hopes and in- 
dividual hardships that have been woven into the texture of the community, 
from the early settlements to the Oregon of today, singularly fit her for the 
work to which she is assigned — that of treating local incident and local inter- 
ests in editorial comment. Her subjects in local coloring are thrown against 
tlie background of pioneer reminiscence in effect as sympathetic as it is unique. 
Mrs. Coburn's position among women in the field of journalism has thus 
become a distinctive one. As a writer she observes keenly, thinks carefully, 
feels truly, judges unharshly, depicts clearly. As a woman, strength of 
character, dignity of effort, and womanliness without shadow of turning, are 
the qualities by which hi-r life is crowned. 


The Homeward March of the Old Pioneers 


Lift high the little children, 

parents, fond and true; 
Behold them feebly marching, 

Who made the paths for you. 

Ah, this is God's great army, 

This march is bliss untold, 
Though ranks are thin and broken, 

And forms are bent and old. 

Oh, homeward they are marching, 

Their lines will disappear; 
Wave high your banners, children, 

With glad, sweet voices, cheer. 

Ah, bright and beauteous spirit, 

'Tis dawn, and spent the night; 
They'll find their dear ones waiting 

Beside the gates of light. 

Oh, they shall live forever — 

Their battle lines are drawn, 
comrades, wait their coming. 

Just near the gates of dawn. 

0, younger generation, 

They were all brave and true. 
Their path was hard and thorny, 

But smooth the one for you. 

(This poem is set to music by the author.) 


James Harrison and Lueza Osborn Douthit 

f AMES HARRISON DOUTHIT was of Scotch-Irish and French 
Huguenot descent, and Lueza OBbom of old English and Scotch 
ancestry, whose records date back several hundred years. They 
were born in the same year, 1816, in South Carolina, near Ander- 
aonville Courthouse. There they grew up and were married April 
23, 1837. The ceremony was performed by Rev. Ira L. Potter, in the home of 
the bride's father, James Osborn. On the following day the bridal party 
went to the home of the groom's father, James Douthit, to hold the infair, 


according to that good old-fashioned custom, which shared- the celebration 
of the event of a marriage between both houses. The young people went 
on horseback, heiaded by the bride and groom, and the older people followed 
in carriages. Mounted upon her dappled gray, the bride led this gay caval- 
cade, as it were, in a triumphant march, exalted as she is to the highest station 
accorded to woman in those olden days when wifehood was the most honor- 
able position to be desired by her. In their early married life they removed 
to Indiana, where Mr. Douthit represented Boone County one term in the 
state legislature. Later they started for Oregon. Arriving at the place of 
rendezvous on the Missouri River April 1, 1853, they found encamped there 
about three hundred emigrants bound for the Oregon Country. One of the 
preliminaries was the election of a captain of the train, as military regulations 



were to be observed. Mr. Douthit, unknown to any of his party, was chosen. 
Such a choice, made by most trains that eroaaed the plains, was an honor 
greater than is generally conceded. There was no political pot boiling on 
the banlfs of the Missouri in those days, nor were men scrambling for this 
preferment with an eye single upon the favors and emoluments attached ; but 
the people sought a leader, one bom, not made, and their choice, usually 
wise, fell upon him in whom the qualities of leadership were apparent. 

After a few weeks' travel, 
owing to the alow movement 
of the ox teams, Mr, Douthit 
and a Mr. Hiatt, who both 
had horse and mule teams, 
decided to travel on alone. 
Mr. Douthit had two hired 
men and Mr. Hiat four 
grown sons. Eight men, all 
well armed, they thought a 
force sufficient to insure 
safety. Without peril or ac- 
cidents they arrived at Bar- 
low's gate July 1, having 
made the trip across the 
plains in the shortest time on 
record up to that date. 

In looking over the Wil- 
lamette Valley for a donation 
claim, Mr. Douthit found 
a one-quarter section of good 
land yet vacant, and adjoin- 
ing it the claim of a bachelor, 
who, contrary to law, was 
trying to hold a half sec- 
tion (unmarried men were 
entitled to a quarter section 
only). Being called upon, he 
said that he expected to be 
married soon. ' ' How soon ? ' ' 
inquired Mr. Douthit, He "didn't know exactly," "Can't that be deter- 
mined T' was asked. "No," said the young man, "I do not know just yet 
where to find a wife." (A surprising admission to one unacquainted with 
prevailing customs in this new country, where, for the first time in history, 
women had a laud value.) Mr. Douthit said: "Young man, I will give 
you just three weeks to find a wife ; if in that time you are not married the 
land is mine. "But," said he, "I haven't a horse to bring her home on," 


Mr. Douthit said promptly: *'l will loan you a horse/* and Dr. Alexander, 
who was present, added, **And I will loan yon my wife's saddle/' 

Thus equipped the bachelor started out leading the horse, saddled and 
bridled, upon which to bring home a wife and save his land. For three 
weeks he wandered from valley to hamlet and from hamlet to hillside, 
wherever a wreath of curling smoke betrayed the presence of a pioneer's 
oabin, but iio wife could he find, and at the end of the time he returned, 
dejected and disconsolate, wifeless, and, worse no doubt in his mind, to the 
extent of half his claim landless. 

Mr. Douthit, in character and desires, belonged not to the age in which 
he lived, but to those elysian times which are yet to dawn upon the earth. 
He cared not for wealth. He wished only enough of this world's goods to 
meet the needs of himself and his family. He cared not for honors, save 
such as man gives to man out of the depths of his heart when he discovers 
in him the embodiment of honor. He loved his fellow man and sought to 
serve him as brother serves brothers, out of the fullness of brotherly kind- 
ness. His word was his bond, and those who knew him accepted it as such. 
He was an Odd Fellow, and served the order for one term as Grand Master 
of Oregon. By occupation a farmer, he loved the farm for its own sake. 
Agriculture he believed to be a high calling, one that brings man into the 
natural life where he lives simply and attains peace and happiness in the 
true sense. Every movement instituted to promote the Well-being of the 
farming class received his hearty co-operation. For two years he >vas presi- 
dent of the State Agricultural Society, and subserved its interests with 
pleasure and fidelity. He was one of a committee of three uppoint«*d to 
select the lands given by the general government toward the .maintenance of 
a State Agricultural College. 

In projecting the first railroad in Oregon, there were two parties, known 
as the East Side and the West Side companies. Each put forth great efforts 
to secure the location of the road on its respective side of the Willamette 
River. While those of the West Side were doing much talking, Mr. Douthit, 
who championed the cause of the East Side, went quietly among the people 
and used his influence so effectively that he secured the location of the road 
on the East Side. 

Possessed of that chivalry which is the Southern man's heritage, Mr. 
Douthit stood a friend and protector of. women. 

To attend the dying in their last hours was an office Mr. Douthit was 
called upon to fulfill; not alone to pray at their bedsides, but also to write 
their wills. In those days the wife was a nonentity in the eyes of the law, 
and was known in her husband's will as her husband saw fit to place her. 
On one occasion a man, knowing that death was very near, called Mr. 
Douthit to write his will. **Now," said the dying man, who was possessed 
of ample means, *'I wish my will to be drawn up in this way: So long as my 
wife remains single she is to have half of my property; if she remarries she 
is to have nothing." **Did your wife not help you to acnuire this prop- 


ertyV* asked Mr. Douthit. **Ye8," replied the man, '*she helped me to get 
it all. We had nothing when we were married." **Then/' said Mr. Douthit, 
**half the property is justly hers whether she marries again or not, and I 
shaU write no such a will.'' The man pleaded, but without avail; if such a 
will were written it was done by another hand. 

On another occasion a man had died and left a widow and several chil- 
dren without means. According to the law then in operation, if it were 
the pleasure of the court, a widow's children could be taken from her and 
bound out, the court being the sole judge whether she could or could not 
support them. In this instance the mother was physically strong and most 
willing to make the effort to provide for her children; but the court did not 
recognize her ability nor consider her willingness. The distracted mother 
sought the advice and help of Mr. Douthit, who earnestly espoused her cause, 
entering the plea that before the children were bound out the mother should 
be given an opportunity to prove whether or not she could maintain them. 
The writer remembers hearing the mother tell with sobs her pathetic story 
and plead for her children. 

Though a South Carolinian, Mr. Douthit did not indorse his native state 
in its acts of secession, and he deplored the rebellion. Slavery he regarded 
as a wrong — a curse alike to the black man and to the white, and a condition 
for which no section nor country was alone responsible. He believed, how- 
ever, that those wfio best understood the negro 's character and the conditions 
of slavery were the best qualified to cope with the problem and render a 

Notwithstanding Mr. Douthit belonged to a long-lived family, his father 
having lived to the age of 84 and his mother 96, he died at 60. Beside the wife 
he so tenderly cherished through her years of suifering, he now rests be- 
neath the pines of Eastern Oregon. 

Lueza Osborn Douthit 

Y MOTHER — of her life work what can I say? Not a fixed prin- 
ciple of right that is mine, not a lofty sentiment that animates 
my soul that received not life-giving inspiration from my mother. 
Gentle and unobtrusive she was, and her work was so quiet that 
those nearest her realized not the subtle power she exercised nor 
the potent forces she set in motion, infusing vigor into the principles she 
inculcated and strength into the sentiments she implanted. At her knee her 
little ones gathered, and heard from her lips the simple words of the meek 
and lowly Jesus; the same sweet words He spake to the waiting people on 
the shores of Galilee. From the word of God she gleaned the great truth. 
At this fountain she sought the wisdom necessary to enable her to work out 
life's greatest problem, that of directing her children in the right way. 


It was her wish to come to Oregon. She loved this land, so rich in 
beauty, and reveled in its enchantment; but on account of poor health she 
was ill equipped to meet the hard conditions of a new country. Amid it all 
no word of repining escaped her lips. Being extremely reticent, she was 
little known outside her home. Home was her world, and there she loved to 
be. The only work ever attempted beyond its pale was to teach a class in 
the neighborhood Sunday School, in which she was deeply interested. 

Ah, these quiet lives ! to the actors seemingly of so little worth, yet how 
strong the current of moral and spiritual forces they set in motion; moving 
unseen beneath the waves that disturb the surface^ but change not the 
momentum of the stream below. 

To the memory of a dear father and mother are these lines written by 

Judge Pratt in Bedticking 

In early times Mr. Robert C. Kinney's home in the Chehalem Valley stood 
with open doors to all who chanced to pass that way. Itinerant pioneer 
preachers, homeless pedagogues, and judges of the courts were numbered 
among the many who oft filled a place in the circle around the blazing fire in 
the wide, open fireplace or at the ample family board. One day in late autumn, 
when Oregon rains had been more than raining, a tall and stately person, pic- 
turesquely attired in sombrero hat, buckskin trousers set off with elaborate 
fringe down the sides and secured around the waist with a long silken scarf 
of bright crimson (a Spanish fashion introduced from California), and a heavy 
flannel shirt of brilliant hue, alighted at the door. This uniquely costumed 
gentleman was none other than His Honor, Judge Pratt, Oregon's first terri- 
torial judge — a man of fine personal appearance and gentlemanly bearing. 
Saturated by the copious rains, he was doubly glad to seek shelter in Mr. 
Kinney's home, where the bright fire warmed and the kindly hospitality 
eheered. After the judge had retired, Mrs. Kinney thoughtfully hung his 
rain-soaked pantaloons by the fire that they might dry before morning, which 
they did and more. To those not acquainted with the peculiarities of wet 
buckskin we will say that in drying the trousers shrank to such an extent 
that the judge could not possibly get into them. Having no others with him, 
the situation was grave, but Mrs. Kinney arose equal to the emergency. Tak- 
ing one of her blue and white striped bedticks, she set about to make a pair 
of trousers for the disabled judge, while he reposed in bed till they were com- 
pleted. When ready, he gratefully donned these emergency trousers, not so 
picturesque, perhaps, as the elaborate ones of buckskin, but surely equally 
attractive. Thus attired, he proceeded on his way to discharge the duties 
of his ofiice. — (Notes furnished by Mrs. Jane M. Smith of Astoria.) 




The Washington is the finest liotel in the Pat^ifie Northwest, and probably 
west of Chieago. It was formally opened May 23 and 24, 1903, when Presi- 
dent Koosevelt made it his headquarters while in Seattle. It is most com- 
plete, comfortable and homelike, and has every convenience, luxury and 
attractive feature known to modern hotels. New throughout. 

Tourists are finding in The Washington an ideal halting place — making 
a visit to Seattle aud the Northwest a pleasure that has heretofore been im- 

Its atmosphere of refinement, exclusive patronage and charming interior, 
together with scenic location unsurpassed, tend to make The Washington the 
most popular high type hotel in the West. 

Families and transients alike praise The Washington — its fame has spread 
widely in a few months — and the necessity of enlarging the hotel has already 
brought to completion the arrangements for doubling the size and capacity 
of this most interesting and satisfactory hostelry. 



Domestic Science 


HREE years ago the University' of Idaho began an organized 
course of instruction in Domestic Science. This step was the 
result of investigation prompted by the belief that the present 
standard of living can be raised only by a practical application of 
physics, chemistry, botany, and kindred sciences to the home. 
That this experiment — for such it was — should begin in a college seemed 
fitting, as it is there that the possibilities of a healthy physical and mental 
life may be exemplified. As soon as the preservation of health is made the 
aim and test of study, a new light is thrown on the subject of home-makjug, 
and the need of an adequate system of preparation is apparent. Prom the 
beginning a keen interest was shown in this department of collegiate work. 
The course, which began with cookery, has been gradually extended to in- 
clude sewing in its various branches and housekeeping in general. Laundry 
work, care of linens, furniture, marketing, keeping of accounts, sanitary 
science in its simplest phases, the chemical and dietetic value of foods — all 
enter the curriculum. 

The educational value of cooking is more often questioned, perhaps, than 
any other branch of manual training, yet it is a study of vital importance. 
Generations ago any connection of schools and kitchens would have been 
thought absurd, but public sentiment has been undergoing a change, until it 
demands of schools, both public and private, that the education of young 
women shall include a liberal as well as a technical training in the arts and in- 
dustries. A young woman may have mastered higher mathematics and be 
able to trace a comet's orbit — and a stronger woman will she be thereby; 
she may have studied the philosophy of Plato and of Kant, but if she is not 
able to calculate the dietetic value of the food upon the table, the hygienic con- 
dition of the home, she is educated only in the abstract, and is not prepared 
for the specific duties of her natural calling. It is not expected that ** skilled 
cooks" will be turned out of this school, but it is believed that a careful 
study of this science will bring about an increased respect for the home, 
and teach young women that the best equipment for them in this industrial 
age is a well-founded knowledge of the practical duties of every-day life. 
Herbert Spencer puts it tersely: **The function which education has to per- 
form is to prepare us for complete living." 

In a general sense the result of this experiment has been to stimulate 
public opinion to such an extent that the state legislature at its last session 
made an especial appropriation to the university for the department of 
Domestic Science. Coming nearer, labor has been dignified and housekeeping 
raised to a higher plane by the working out of this new college ideal. 

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Roads and Railways — Early History 


N all ages of the world the development of nations and the progress 
of civilization have been in direct proportion to the construction of 
highways for travel and transportation between contiguous and 
distant comuiunities. The absence of means of travel and trans- 
portation has been the characteristic of barbarism ; and the develop- 
ment of such means has always marked the dawn of commerce, progress, and 
prosperity. This principle has been clearly illustrated in the history and 
settlement of Oregon. The native Indian population built no roads, not 
even trails, and they had no intercourse with surrounding tribes except the 
casual canoe or the occasional pony. Everything stood still in barbaric 
solitude, until Lewis and Clark, one hundred years ago, aroused the red man 
from the silence of ages. 

The first wagon road constructed to let population into Oregon within 
the territory, now composing the States of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and 
a part of ^lontana, which has been used continuously since its original loca- 
tion in 1845, is the road over the Cascade Mountains south of Mt. Hood, 
known as the ** Barlow Road." It was located by Joel Palmer and Samuel 
K. Barlow, and was opened much of the distance over the mountains in great 
danger and distress by the starving, freezing immigrants of 1845. The 
awful trials endured by the pioneers who opened that old road, where the 
heroic mothers of Oregon carried their children ' over the ice and snows of 
the* Cascade Range, can never be comprehended by the gentle women who, 
in palace cars, with every luxury of modern life, visit the Lewis and Clark 
Exposition. To the courage, fortitude, and energy of these unconquerable 
souls is due the honor of founding civilization, establishing law and education, 
and maintaining religion on the Pacific Coast of North America. 

This old ** Barlow Road" was also one of the first roads to receive a 
charter from the provisional government, and the only one constructed under 
such a charter. The road leading from the East into Southern Oregon was 
opened subsequent to the Barlow route, and was mainly the work of the 
Applegates who settled in Umpqua Valley; and the greater portion of it, 
like the ** Oregon Trail," was in no sense a constructed road, but a trace 
passing over open groimd. But as soon as the Territorial Legislature was 
organized we find the public interest in constructing free highways fully 
manifested, along with ample provisions for free public schools, and for 
seminaries, academies, and colleges. 

The wagon road era may be considered the first stage in the develop- 
ment of Oregon. Owing to the great distance between this section and the 
centers of population in the Union, and to the fact of its being beyond the 
pale of foreign immigration, the increase of population was slow; so that 


when the feasibility of railroads in the state was first discussed there could 
not have been more than 60,000 population in Oregon. 

The agitation in favor of railroads in Oregon was started, contrary to 
the general experience, not by men of capital able to build roads, but by men 
without capital, and with views and plans somewhat ahead of their time. 
The first tangible effort, continuously pushed until the actual construction 
of a railroad was commenced, started at Jacksonville, in Southern Oregon, 
in 1864. In 1863 S. G. Elliot, a county surveyor of California, and George 
H. Belden, a civil engineer of Portland, Oregon, contributed their efforts to 
make a preliminary survey for a line of railroad from Marysville, California, 
to Portland, Oregon. These two men organized a surveying party, and with- 
out means or money themselves, made their survey from Marysville north 
to Oregon on substantially the route where the Oregon & California line is 
constructed. They landed at Jacksonville in October, 1863, having collected 
all means to support their party from the people along the route as a bonus 
to help the new enterprise along. 

These seedy, footsore wayfarers of the Elliot and Beldon survey did not 
inspire much confidence in the building of seven hundred miles of railroad, to 
cost over $20,000,000. To make matters worse, and seemingly wreck the 
infant project, Elliot and Belden quarreled upon the point of which of them 
should control the location of the survey line in Oregon. Then and there 
both gentlemen abandoned the whole outfit, leaving their men unpaid five 
months* wages. Accompanying this surveying party was Col. A. C. Barry, 
who was acting as a sort of commissary general, and upon th*? desertion of 
iJlliot and Belden, Barry put the whole party into the old Jacksonville 
Hospital for winter quarters, and then made a canvass of the town to interest 
the people or some one to raise money to pay the men and continue the 
survey the next year. In the course of this canvass Colonel Barry called 
upon J. Gaston, then a practicing attorney at Jacksonville, and fully ex- 
plained his plans. Mr. Gaston agreed to take hold of the matter and help 
extricate the enterprise from the difiiculties which had apparently wrecked 
it ; Gaston then advancing money to pay the members of the surveying party 
under a contract that they should continue the work the next season. In 
pursuance of this agreement Colonel Barry, provided with letters from Gaston 
to his friends and public men, then proceeded to the Willamette Valley, going 
all the way from Jacksonville to Portland on foot, to enlist and arouse in- 
terest in the completion of the survey. Having received assurances of sup- 
port, Barry returned to Jacksonville, and in April, 1864, reorganized his 
party, and with ample supply of tents and means of transportation, on May 
1 took up the line of survey where Elliot and Belden had dropped it, and 
by October 1 had extended this line from Jacksonville to Portland and the 
Columbia River — the first survey that was ever made for a line of railroad 
between Portland and the southern boundary of the state. 

In this undertaking Mr. Gaston had paid for the outf.t at Jacksonville, 
guaranteed the wages of the surveying party, and put in all his time in the 


summer and fall of 1864 in circulating petitions and memorials, and in cor- 
responding with public men in Oregon and California to secure united action 
in asking of Congress a grant of public lands in aid of the construction of 
the Oregon & California Railroad. By November, Barry had his maps and 
profiles of the survey completed, and Mr. Gaston had prepared and printed 
Barry's report on the practicability and value of such a road, together with 
a ** Report on the Wealth and Resources of Oregon," bein^ the first work of 
the kind ever issued. All these documents were laid before a committee of 
Conprress at the session of that year. On July 25, 1866 Congress passed the 
act granting lands to aid in the construction of the road. 

It would require too much space for this work to enter into any history 
of the contest between the rival railroad corporations for possession of that 
land grant. As the road could not be located on both sides of the Willamette 
River, it was natural and inevitable for the people on both sides of the river 
to contend for the advantages which its construction promised. (For a full 
history of that contest see Vol. 11, Bancroft's History of Oregon, pp. 696 to 
704, and Oregon Historical Quarterly, No. 4, Vol. HI, December, 1902.) 

After it was decided that the east side of the Willamette Valley should 
have that original land grant, Mr. Gaston and his company applied to Con- 
gress a second time for a land grant in aid of the road they had started from 
Portland up the west side of the valley, and a grant of land for such road 
was made in May, 1870, being the last grant Congress ever made in aid of 
railroads. This grant included aid to a branch road from Forest Grove, 
in Washington County, through the Nehalem Valley to Astoria. Under the 
first grant the railroad was built from Portland to the southern boundary of 
the state, and under the second grant from Portland to McMinnville. But 
these two grants were the foundation and opening inducements for all the 
railroad development of the state, which has now resulted in the construc- 
tion of 1,800 miles of profitable road and great prosperity to the entire state. 
It is now forty years since this great work was commenced with such slender 
means at Jacksonville in 1864, and of all the men then actively connected 
with it, Mr. Gaston is the only surviving representative. 

Mrs. Dr. Weatherford, who was on the plains from April to September, 
1852, had many thrilling experiences. One day the emigrants were about 
to cross a stream on a willow bridge, when a howling band of Indians, gor- 
geously painted, brandishing their tomahawks and scalping knives, bore 
down upon them. The Indians demanded toll for crossing the bridge at the 
rate of $5.00 per man. The emigrants refused and said they would fight. 
'*Give me your money, boys,'' said Mrs. Weatherford, **and 1*11 see what I 
can do.** She calmly approached the Indians and pleaded with them till the 
chief signaled to his followers to yield. Only 50 cents a wagon was charged, 
and the train moved on. From this incident and similar ones Mrs. Weather- 
ford was regarded as a saving angel. Many joined their party en route, and 
refused to leave the woman who could thus move the savages. 

SIC 13 


Mineral Springs Nature's Health Reservoirs 


HERE is no region in the Northwest where mineral springs are not 
found. The western slope of the Cascade Mountains is cut and 
seamed by swift creeks and rivers, and in nearly every one of these 
valleys the **soda spring" is found. That at Sodaville, in the 
valley of the South Santiam, has tlie distinction of adoption by 
the State of Oregon, and of consequent improvement and dedication to public 
use. The other developed springs in the South Santiam Valley are those known 
as Waterloo (close to the Willamette Valley) and the Upper and Lower Soda 
Springs, high in the mountains. 

The hot and sulphur springs on the Mackenzie, some forty miles east of 
the City of Eugene, situated among the magnificent forests, and on the banks 
of that most picturesque stream, have a wonderful record of cures of the 
various developments of the rheumatic poison. 

The slopes of the Coast Range are not without their soda and sulphur 
springs — using the common names bestowed very often without any real 
knowledge of the constituents of the water. 

In Eastern Oregon, throughout the region of the Blue Mountains, 
medicinal springs are common. Some nine miles along the line of the 0. R. & 
N. eastward from the town of La Grande, in Union County, Oregon, is found 
''Hot Lake." 

On both sides of the Columbia River in Oregon and Washington medical 
springs are found, and in the Klamath River Valley, in the extreme south of 
Oregon, mineral springs are also reported. 

In Spokane County, Washington, is ** Medical Lake," situated 2,000 feet 
above sea level, a mile long and half a mile wide, the water being strongly 
mineralized. The Eastern Washington Hospital for the Insane has been 
built there. 


These reservoirs for the alleviation of human suffering created for the 
use of man were doubtless intended by the All-wise One to be as free to all 
as the sunshine, the rain, and the ozone in the air we breathe; not as sources 
of wealth to those who might chance to stumble upon them and through 
this mere accident hold them for personal profit to the exclusion of all sufferers 
who may be unable to meet such charges as the chance owner may fix. 

The government has seen fit to reserve, for public use and pleasure, 
those parts of its domain peculiar for beauty and grandeur. The justice 
and wisdom of these reserves no one questions. Should it not with equal 
wisdom and justice withhold from private possession these health reservoirs, 
where pain-laden humanity may find relief and through these waters lay 
down their burdens and untraniineled take up the labors of life? 


The Visiting Nurse Association 


HE Visiting Nurse Association of Portland was organized in 1902, 
and has gained steadily in strength and usefulness. While the City 
of Portland is free from the crowded slum and its poverty-stricken 
population, there is great need for the work of the visiting nurse. 
Sunlight, fresh air, and a bountiful water supply are agencies which 
help Portland maintain a low death rate, but, unfortunately, nature unaided 
cannot overcome the habits of ignorance and carelessness. 

As stated in its constitution, the Association is organized to ** benefit and 
assist those otherwise unable to secure assistance in time of illness, to promote 
cleanliness, and to teach the proper care of the sick.** When first organized, 
there were funds enough to support the nurse for only two months, but as the 
purpose of the work became better known, money was forthcoming. 

In all work of this character, the most difficult lesson to learn is that of 
helping without weakening the recipient. It is hard to know just when to 
withdraw the support and comfort so much needed, but which if continued 
would result in weakening the moral fiber of the family. It is a work which 
demands trained workers, because of its strong appeal to the sympathies. To 
meet successfully the demands of this complex situation, requires a steady, 
carefully trained judgment, and much depends on the personality of the nurse. 

The work during the past year has doubled, and it became necessary dur- 
ing the winter to employ emergency nurses for the severe cases. It is with the 
chronic cases that one learns the value of organized charity. Nothing else is 
so demoralizing in its eflpect on the already strained resources of a family as 
prolonged sickness, and here is where the nurse appreciates the intelligent re- 
sponse of organized charity. Through it the rent is paid, the larder is stocked, 
clothing is provided, and work is found through the City Board of Charities, 
the benevolent societies, and the diflferent church organizations. The hospitals 
have been most generous in placing their resources at the command of the As- 
sociation, and the physicians have been its earnest supporters. 

The following organizations have afiiliated with the Association and main- 
tain a delegate on its Advisory Board: The Portland Woman's Club, the King's 
Daughters of Trinity Church, the Y. W. C. A., the Calvary Presbyterian Church, 
St. Anne's Society, and the philanthropic branches of the Unitarian Church, 
which include the AVoman's Alliance, the Wm. G. Eliot Fraternity, and the 
Christian Union. In addition, a little circle of women of the Unitarian Church, 
called the lenity Guild, supplies the i>atients with such delicacies as may be 
required. The King's Daughters have kept the maternity bag supplied, and 
St. Anne's Society has generously assisted in paying for extra nurses. The 
Jewish Ladies' Relief Society has been a staunch friend of the Association ever 
since it was organized. 







Sacajawea, the Birdwoman 

NTERWOVEN with the history of all people there is a golden thread 
of romance, but in the annals of no other uncivilized race, perhaps, 
does this shine so vividly as among the American Indians. This ro- 
mance^ blended with the picturesque figures of chieftains, orators, 
leaders, heroes, presents a living picture which throws a peculiar 

charm over the history and the scenes of the exploits of these natives of the 


Among the many about whom is a halo of romance none commands a 
more intense interest or admiration than the Birdwoman of the Mandans. This 
little daughter of the wilderness, in whose history centers so much attention at 
the present time, was of the Shoshone tribe. When about ten years of age she 
was taken captive by the Mandans, whose territory was on the upper waters 
of the Missouri River. She became the slave wife of a French voyager, Char- 
boneau, at the age of 15. 

Lewis and Clark spent the first winter of their expedition across the conti- 
nent in the country of the Mandans^ where Charboneau and his young slave 
wife lived. The Captains engaged Charboneau as interpreter; they thought 
his wife would also be of service when they reached the territory of her people. 

In February, 1805, this girl wife, then but sixteen, gave birth to a son, and 
would have died but for the care bestowed upon her by the explorers. The gen- 
tle, engaging little Birdwoman won upon the Captains and their men. Through- 
out the long journey, burdened with her babe strapped upon her back, she 
labored with the men, and through her extraordinary efficiency rendered in- 
valuable service. The first time she proved her value through her unusual pres- 
ence of mind and capability was on an occasion when a canoe, loaded with the 
journals of the Captains, their scentific instruments and their medicines, was 
caught in a rapid and was on the point of being overturned. Charboneau, who, 
with Sacajawea, was in the canoe, held the steering oar. Struck with fear, he 
set up a howling to his God. At the last moment the boat was saved from over- 
turning, but filled with water and the lighter part of the precious cargo floated 
out upon the stream. Sacajawea, with her wits about her and with great cour- 
age, saved not only herself and baby, but grasping right and left secured the 
most valuable packages. 

Late in the summer the party reached the mountains, where the canoes had 
to be abandoned and horses obtained, without which it would be impossible to 
cross the mountains to the headwaters of the Columbia. Since leaving the 
country of the Mandans there had not been a trace of human beings except in 
camps deserted months before. As they drew nearer the mountains Indians at 
a distance were seen, but these hurried away out of sight, avoiding contact. 

At a place where it seemed the expedition must be abandoned, the Bird- 
woman began to dance and sing. The valley into which they had penetrated 


she recognized as the one from which she had been taken captive years before 
and now she was among the haunts of her people. Later some squaws were 
brought in who, abandoned by the Indian men, had fallen into the hands of the 
explorers. As the poor creatures cowered before their captors, bending their 
heads as if to receive a death-blow, one, a young girl, suddenly caught sight of 
Sacajawea, and rushed toward her. She was of the same tribe and had been 
taken captive with Sacajawea, but made her escape and returned to her peo- 
ple. The two embraced tenderly. It was the very band of the Birdwomau 
(Shoshones) that had been sighted. 

The Shoshone women, acting as guides and intercessors, brought the war- 
riors to Lewis and Clark. At the council which soon followed, Sacajawea be- 
gan to interpret the speech of the chief, and lo ! to her joy, found that it was 
her own brother's words she was translating. The Indian girl had made fur- 
ther progress possible, as a firm friendship was at once established between the 
explorers and the Shoshones. Horses and guides were furnished; the Sho- 
shones passed the white men on to the Flatheads, and they in turn to the Nez 

In the councils Sacajawea was always the most important interpreter, but 
not solely as an interpreter was her presence invaluable. As the party passed 
from tribe to tribe the sight of Sacajawea with her pappoose riding with the 
Captains was an assurance that it was not a war party. 

Of all the explorers Captain Clark seems to have engaged her especial 
preference. At Christmas time in the Clatsop camp she presented him with 
two dozen tails of the white weazel. It is pathetic to read how, at a time when 
^starvation seemed near, with almost too great loyalty to her Captain, she gave 
him the piece of bread she had somehow kept for a long time, intending it for 
her baby in case of extremity. 

On the return trip the explorers found that the friends made through Sac- 
ajawea had remained faithful. The party did not at all times follow the route 
first traveled ; they took new paths and sometimes felt themselves hopelessly 
lost, but Sacajawea always proved their deliverer. As a little child she had 
come with her people through this country and with the keen sight of a mi- 
gratory bird again and again pointed out the way. 

When the expedition returned to the Mandan villages in the late summer 
Charboneau decided to again take up his abode among these people, and Sac 
ajawea remained with her lord and master. 

It is with a sense of burning injustice and a pang of regret one reads that 
Charboneau received for his services $500, and Sacajawea nothing, not even 
her freedom — a blot upon the memory of Lewis and Clark. 

The last mention made of Sacajawea is in 1811, when the traveler, Breck- 
inridge, sailing up the Missouri, records meeting with an old Frenchman and 
his Indian wife, who, he learns, had crossed the continent with Lewis and Clark. 
The woman seemed fond of white people, tried to imitate civilized ways in 


manners and dress, and in general appeared to have aspirations for something 
higher than slavery. She was, says the traveler, in feeble health. 

When or where this life, so interwoven with the immortal achievement of 
the Lewis and Clark expedition, came to a close, no one can tell. 

After a century the women who trod the plains in the wake of Sacajawea 
have erected to her memory a bronze statue made of copper from an Oregon 
mine and designed and executed by a woman. Miss Alice Cooper of Denver. 

lliis in part atones the early neglect of the one woman who led the way 
across the continent through wilds and over mountains, and will stand for gen- 
erations a monument to woman's strongest characteristics — love, devotion and 
self-sacrifice — exemplified in this simple maiden of the forest, Sacajawea. 

The Spirit of the Pioneer Mother 


(incident recently came to my knowledge illustrating the spirit of 
the pioneer mothers of Oregon. 

In the winter of 1844-5, Mr. Francis Perry, then living near Mus- 
catine, Iowa, returned home one day and said to his wife, then in 
her sixteenth year, and the mother of a babe six months old: 

** Elizabeth, I want to talk with you. I have made up my mind to go to 
Oregon. Now, you can do as you please — go with me, or go home to your 
father and mother with the baby, and wait until I go out there and get a home 
started, when I will send for you or come back after you.'' 

** Francis," she said, **when I married you I left my father and mother to 
live with you; and when you get ready to go to Oregon I will go with you." 

Soon afterwards Mrs. Perry's father visited her and said: 

*'My child, come back home with the baby and stay until your husband 
has a home ready for you in that far-away land. Just think of it! There is 
nothing out there but savages and wild beasts. Mr. Perry will necessarily 
have to be away from home much of the time in order to earn the means to 
make a start with ; and he will return home some time and find you and the 
baby murdered or destroyed by wild beasts. My child, don't go, don't go !" And 
tears came streaminj]^ from his eyes. 

"Father," Mrs. Perry said, **niy duty to my husband impels me to go 
with him. When I married him I left you and mother to help him make a 
home; and now with all possible love and respect for you, my deepest convic- 
tions are that I must go with him." 

Then the mother of the determined young woman spoke up and said, re- 
calling her own young married life, '* Father, Elizabeth is right; don't talk to 
her any more!" 


Women on Public Boards 


i INCE the day when Dolly Madison, 'midst fire and smoke, pre- 
served the credentials of the Ameriean Nation, women have steadiJy 
proven their ability to meet responsibilities in the varying condi- 
tions of life ; yet only in the last quarter of a century have they been 
admitted to places among the governing councils of the country. 

The best example of woman's work on boards of public service is th^ 
of Clara Barton, to whose judgment and forethought the success of the 
jVmerican branch of the Red Cross Society is largely due. But in a smaller 
way it has of late fallen to the lot of women to serve on public boards. That 
this is an innovation may be noted by referring to the California State Board 
of Charities, created not many years ago and to the experience of Dr. Charlotte 
B, Btown, who in great measure was instrumental in its organization. This 
b'isy physician, had she been a man, would naturally have held an appoint- 
ment on a board in which she had shown such deep interest, but prejudice 
ruled and the position was not accorded her. 

The gradual waning of this prejudice was apparent when a tew years 
later Dr. Sarah B. Shuey was appointed to the health board of Oakland, Cal., 
and, though not without opposition, to the position of its chairmanship. Her 
service was beyond criticism. The false idea has died away and the Governor 
of California last summer commissioned Dr. Annie Lyie to represent Cali- 
fornia at the Anti-Tuberculosis Congress in St. Louis. 

In the Northwest the service of women on public boards was recognized 
as early as 1880 in Portland, when, at the taxpayers' annual school meeting, 
resolutions were adopted asking for a committee to investigate the condition 
of the public schools, and, with six gentlemen, Mrs. Mary A. Holbrook and 
Mrs. Rosa F. Burrell were elected to serve on that board. 

Oregon was honored by the appointment of one of her citizens, Mrs. J. B. 
Montgomery, by the United States Government to serve on the Board of Lady 
Managers at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, where she served with dis- 

The board of managers of the Lewis and Clark Exposition -have taken 
another step forward — recognize no distinction through appointments, but 
place genius and labor on merit alone. 

In Oregon public sentiment has so far advanced that women are chosen 
school directors. The chairman of the Board of Education in Portland is 
Mrs. C. E. Sitton, an eminently satisfactory official. 

In municipal sanitation women have been brought forward, and Port- 
land's Mayor has lately reappointed Dr. Mae 11. Cardwell to the health board 
of the city. 

Oregon's State Board of Charities, organized two years ago, has women 
on its executive board, who are active and indefatigable in the work. 


Home Life of Chinese Women in the We^ 

By MRS. W. fl. HOr.T. City Missionary 

I HE coDtraat between the home life of Chinese women onder the in- 
fluence of Christianity, and that without it, is marked (though 
the home life of the non-Christian undergoes some change when 
brought in contact with American life). However, the force of 
early training and inherited notions is with difficulty overcome. 
Women have greater liberty here, and often exercise it, yet there are some who 
do not, and seldom venture even upon the streets. When aslied why, they say 
they are ashamed, believing, 
according to their early 
training, that it is immodest 
for them to appear in public. 
In non-Christian homes 
idolatry is always in evi- 
dence. Before a picture an 
ornamental candle is burn- 
ing, and also sticks of smok- 
ing incense, showing that 
worship is being rendered to 
the divinity in which the oc- 
cupant of the home believes, 
even though she is not in the 
attitude of worship, and 
may be engaged in house- 
hold duties, or perhaps en- 
tertaining a guest. Some< 
times an idol is seen, though 
not always; a picture serves 
the purpose, or often a re- 
ligious sentence upon the 
wall. This is common in 
places of business. In the 
front of the entrance under 
a table will be seen a vessel 
with oil in which is a wick 
on fire; on the wall near the 
lamp will be found charac- 
ters, which are words of wel- 
come to the local divinity. This is idolatry without an image. 

The changed and greatly improved conditions of the Chinese woman's 
home life under the influence of Christianity is alone sufficient to warrant 
every effort possible to Christianize these people, the "Celestials" so called. 


The Young Women's Christian Association 

President of the Y. W. C. A. of Portland 

HE Young Women's Christian Association began its work at the 
capital, Salem, and worked among the colleges for several years. 
Finding their scope would be greater they moved to Portland. At 
this time Mrs. C. A. Dolph took up the work as president. The 
whole of the Northwest was under her supervision, and it was a 

time of hard work and earnest prayer, but without coming much before 

the public. 

The first city association was organized in Portland at the close of the 
year 1900, and moved into nice rooms in the Macleay building April 1, 1901. 
The growth was phenomenal, and in two years larger rooms were secured at 
312 Oak street. The membership, beginning with 700, arose to over 1,400. 
The delightful rooms were filled all the time. The dining room, where real 
home-cooked lunches are served, is chiefly patronized by business women, but 
women of leisure always find it a pleasant place to lunch and meet their 
friends. The walls are decorated with beautiful reproductions of the old 
masters. No other association in the world owns such a fine collection, both 
from a decorative and an educational point of view. This was the generous 
gift of one woman. The educational work has been very helpful. Aggressive 
work is being done along the lines of Bible study, domestic science and 
domestic art. Other classes also have been greatly enjoyed. 

The Seattle association was organized at the same time as the one in 
Portland, and has been quite as successful and popular in its work and de- 
velopment. They have just moved into a commodious and attractive new 
building. An association has also been organized in Spokane, which is doing 
very good work. The college work has grown and is now under the super- 
vision of special committees, the Washington committee taking Montana 
and the Oregon committee taking Idaho. 

The outlook for the Young Women's Christian Association work in the 
Northwest is very bright, and it is hoped that the Northwest conference, 
which will be held at Qearhart, Oregon, in September, will be a great in- 
spiration for all the workers. 

The Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition will also bring: young women 
from all over the country, and the Portland city association is building very 
attractive headquarters, where they will serve lunches all summer. They have 
the only woman's building on the grounds. Prom the wide, verandas a 
beautiful view of the grounds, the lake and trail can be seen. 

The Young Women's Christian Association is among the foremost of the 
organized bodies of women now earnestly laboring together in behalf of the 
Portland Travelers' Aid Association. 


Kindergarten in the Northwe^ 

N 1882 Mrs. Kate Douglas Wiggin came to Portland by invitation 
from the Christian Union, of the Unitarian Church, and gave sev- 
eral lectures on the subject of kindergarten. On returning to her 
home in San Francisco she represented Portland to her co-workers 
as an important field for kindergarten work. Her enthusiasm and 
the influence of prominent women here induced Mrs. Caroline Dunlap to 
come north and adopt Portland as her home and mission. The work began 
here in a private kindergarten, but Mrs. Dunlap 's views of the importance of 
kindergarten training were far too broad to allow her to be satisfied with any 
restricted effort. The cause must, however, gain its own standing, and this 
one kindergarten became the observation point for all interested in the sub- 

In 1883 a training class was founded in conjunction with Mrs. Wiggin 's 
class in San Francisco, and several ladies entered into study of the system. 

In 1884 a prospectus was circulated for forming a free kindergarten as- 
sociation. In response to this the organization was soon established, and on 
November 10, 1884, the first free kindergarten was opened in an unused 
engine house on Olisan street. There were fifteen children in attendance the 
first day, but in a few months over sixty children were enrolled and three 
teachers employed. 

In September, 1885, the second free kindergarten was opened in the Uni- 
tarian Chapel on Porter street, South Portland. During the year its enroll- 
ment reached 91. 

In January, 1886, through the generosity of half a dozen ladies and gen- 
tlemen, who each gave $60 per annum, Kindergarten No. 3 was opened in the 
Watson's Addition school house on Seventeenth and Upshur streets, and soon 
had an enrollment of fifty children. 

In September, 1890, the fourth kindergarten was opened on Seventh and 
Davis streets. This was furnished by a society of little girls and for them was 
named the King's Daughters' Kindergarten. The enrollment here was 84 at 
the close of the first year. * 

As a philanthropic work, the kindof*gartens had been eminently suc- 
cessful, but so important a factor in education should be a part of the public 
school system, and in order to bring this about the following bill was brought 
before the legislature and became a law in January, 1887: 

**The directors of any school district in the state, which shall contain 500 
inhabitants or more, may, when authorized thereto by the qualified electors 
of such district, provide for the establishment and maintenance therein, as part 
of the common school system, schools commonly known as kindergartens.'' 

The kindergarten with some state aid and by the efforts of friends went 
steadily forward building a far-reaching and heneficent influence. In 1897 
Mrs. Dunlap retired from the position of superintendent. At this time the 


kindergarten board of directors expected to secure through the legislature 
a large appropriation. The bill was lost, and even the small assistance for- 
merly given was withheld. An appeal was then made to the taxpayers^ and 
the sum of $5,000 was voted for the purpose of putting the kindergartens into 
the public schools. Unfortunately, no notice had been given of such inten- 
tion; the proceeding was therefore illegal. The boatd of education declined 
to handle the money, and it was decided by the court that the board of man- 
agers of the free kindergartens might devote it to the free kindergartens. 
One year exhausted the fund, and its vanishing shade rang the death knell of 
that happy, useful and beloved child of Portland — the free kindergarten. 

Art in the Northwe^ 

Extrad from Fine Arts Journal, Edited by Marion White, Chicago, Illinois 

T IS pleasant to contemplate what artists are doing in the North- 
west. Many of these reside in Portland or its immediate vicinity. 
And no wonder, for there is every inspiration here for the student 
of landscape. The beautiful Willamette, heading with a sure, swift 
current toward the Columbia, is ojie of the most picturesque of 
streams. Its wondrous falls adds greatly to its charms. Green pastures with 
cattle knee deep in luscious verdure, trees stretching their big branches in 
benediction, glimpses of orchards, and an atmosphere charged with scent of 
woods, and all a-quiver with its own purity and strength and subtle charm of 
niovement when day is melting into eve. 

The artists of the West are all telling more or less of this grand story of 
Nature's perfect self; all growing in appreciation of the truly beautiful. 
They are the art pioneers of this Greater West, and like all pioneers of any 
newly-discovered country, they must work patiently and unfailingly. And 
this they are doing. 

It is this tender beauty that Jennie E. Wright portrays with such good 
feeling. Mrs. Wright also paints mountain scenery, and Hood has been 
stadied by her under every condition. 

Miss Frances C. R. Grothjean is one of Oregon's most notable young 
artists, her work having been seen in exhibition in many cities in the United 
States. In 1900 she was represented among the American artists at the Paris 
Exposition. Miss Grothjean was born in Germany, but brought by her 
parents to this country when very young, her education being received in 
the schools of Portland, Oregon. She went to Paris, studying under Courtois, 
Girard and others. 

Annabelle Hutchinson-Parrish is another local artist whose work in enamel 
and tapestry painting is of rare quality. Mrs. Parrish possesses the broad 
technique and grasp as well as the innate love of that which is of country 
which will bring an impetus to art in the Greater West. 

souvBiriB or wbstebk wombn 197 


Ufe in a Mining Camp 

Notes by MRS. J. L.. GOODYEAR 

ITUATED in the northern part of Elmore County, Idaho, on the 
^riddle Fork of the Boise River, is the little mining town of Atlanta. 
Its surroundings are unusually picturesque, even for a mining camp 
in the **Geui of the Mountains." The Middle Fork, for most of its 
course, runs through steep canyons. But fifteen miles from the sum- 
rait of the Saw Tooth Mountains, its waters, foaming and roaring over their 
rocky bed, enter a pleasant valley, nearly circular, and about two miles in 
diameter, walled in by grass and brush-covered hills, wooded mountains, and 
jagged cliffs of granite. On the south side of this valley, at the mouth of 
Quartz Gulch, with pasture and meadow and timber land spread out before it, 
lies the town that was once (as it may be again) famous all over the land as 
a center of gold production. 

The history of Atlanta began in the same way as that of all the older camps 
in the state. Men were first attracted to the spot by the rich placer diggings. 
While hunting for placer ground, A. 6. Miller and Felix Farris discovered a 
promising quartz ledge, which they located under the name of the ** Buffalo." 

The first quartz, being very rich, was worked by arrastres. Then large 
quantities of ore were carried to Kelton, Utah, by pack train and wagon, and 
shipped from there to the smelters by rail. Later on, large mills were built. 
But the milling process was very unhealthy, and nearly all who worked in the 
Buffalo mill, strong young men at the time, are now dead. The chlorination 
process was used. This required the ore to be roasted, and the fumes of arsenic 
that arose were destructive to health. The bullion was run into 40-lb. and 80- 
lb. bars, piled up during the winter, and shipped out when the road was open 
in the spring. 

There could not have been many desperate characters in the camp, because 
but little precaution was taken to guard the bullion, and there seem to have 
been no losses. A cart was once so heavily loaded with bullion that the horse 
could not pull it. The owners accordingly unloaded some of it, left it by the 
roadside, proceeded to their destination, and then came back for the remainder 
of the bullion. The fact that the bars were so heavy may have encouraged 
honesty in some, as the following incident suggests. At one time, a man sewed 
up the legs of a pair of overalls, put a 42-lb. gold brick in each leg, and carried 
them to a deserted tunnel. But after a two days' search by a large part of the 
population, the treasure was recovered. Nobody was hung, and in tho absence 
of definite proof the guilty party escaped punishment. 

Owing to the exposed position of the summit, the road to Atlanta is closed 
by snowdrifts for a portion of the year. Travelers and mail carriers then have 
recourse to snowshoes. The Norwegian shoes, called skis, are generally used, 
though the web shoes are preferred by some. The skis are used for pleasure 


as well as for business. Expert snowshoers can come down a steep hill as fast 
as a railroad train^ and some attain, at tinie», a speed of a mile a minute. 

The term ** mining camp" often suggests roughness and wickedness. But 
Atlanta has been exceptionally free from the worst features of mining camps. 
There has been no fatal shooting affray in the history of the camp. It has been, 
since the seventies, a town of families, who have exerted a positive Christian 
influence. There have been Sunday-school and other Christian services for 
years. The people are interested in education and have a good public school. 
They also have a flourishing literary society. Among the attractions of the 
towriy the hot mineral springs must not be forgotten. There are a large num- 
ber of such springs in the vicinity, at one of which is a convenient bathhouse. 
These springs have valuable medicinal virtues. 

The community is like one big family. During the winter months At- 
lanta is a world by itself, though not lonely in its isolation. Merry pastimes 
fill the hours ; card parties and dancing indoors ; hunting and snowshoeing out- 
doors. Imagine a party of twenty or more clambering up a mountain side and 
then with the swiftness of an eagle gliding gaily down the steep descent over 
the glistening snow, laughter and shout making vocal the frosty air. No end 
to merriment when some hapless rider plunges headlong into a snow bank. 
This wild pleasure is old winter's rarest gift to these denizens of this snow- 
embattled vale. In summer, long rambles in the wild woods in search of flow- 
ers, which bloom in profusion even to the mountain tops, horseback riding, 
picnics and camping parties are the diversions, filling out the year with a con- 
tinuous round of pleasure, as well as of work. 

The only cloud that overshadows these fair skies is the dread that some 
loved one may at any moment be brought home on a stretcher, crushed by a 
cave-in or by falling down a manhole. 

Such is life in a mining camp. 

**The Country Schoolma'am in Oregon in Pioneer Days," a story by the 
editor of The Souvenir, portraying the three phases of rural life in early times 
— the farm, the stock ranch, and the mines — will soon appear. The author of 
this book has lived amid the scenes depicted ; has known the people character- 
ized ; and has learned from real life the story she has told. In the simple story 
of this Country Schoolm'am may the readers get a true glimpse into the simple 
life of country folk ; and may they discern, too, the growth of character under 
the influences surrounding those who stand so near to nature, and discover 
therein the germ that expands into the strongest, most brilliant and most suc- 
cessful of the race when touched by the refining and enlightening influences of 
odueational; social, and comniercial opportunities. 


Some Things About the Pacific Monthly 

HE PACIFIC MONTHLY is characterized by a virility which no 
other publication in the West has ever attempted to secure. It is 
published in Portland, Oregon, and is reflecting the great movements 
which are the soul of things Western. It has, withal, an interest to 
command respect from any intelligent reader,or even from the reader 
who wishes simply to be amused. The magazine has become what has long 
been badly needed — the great Western magazine. Some facts about the mag- 
azine are interesting and noteworthy. For instance, there is probably no other 
magazine in the world at the same price which uses as high a grade of paper as 
The Pacific Monthly is now using. The publishers state that they have been led 
to adopt this course in order to produce fine eflFects in half-tone engravings, 
and this letter from a contributor to the Stoughton Sentinel, published in 
Stoughton, Massachusetts, bears evidence of the fruit which first-class work 
produces. Loring W. Puflfer, writing in this paper, says : 

**I saw an issue of The Pacific Monthly the other day, and noted the sharp, 
realistic engravings that reproduce the wonderful views to be seen on the 
west coast at Portland, Oregon, where we visited a few years ago. Seeing is 
believing; so when we read about a place and speculate about how it probably 
looks, we then (if an engraving is seen) carry away a mental photograph in 
our minds that compensates to a certain extent for time or money to travel. 
It costs less than ten cents per month, and the engravings in some of the in- 
dividual numbers are worth the year's subscription of one dollar. This is 
not a puflf." 

Another prominent paper published in Pennsylvania (and, by the way, a 
prophet is not without honor except in his own country) says: **The Pacific 
Monthly is the literary success of the day." The superintendent of schools of 
Montana says that The Pacific Monthly is an inspiration to its readers, a credit 
to its editors, bright and attractive. One of the prominent citizens of Mt. 
Angel says that The Pacific Monthly is the brightest, newsiest, most thoroughly 
up-to-date magazine west of the Rocky Mountains. One of the leading adver- 
tising men of San Francisco says: **I can't keep from/ buying The Pacific 
Monthly when I strike a news stand. ' ' The Telegram, Portland, Oregon, says : 
**The Pacific Monthly is replete with excellent engravings. The wealth of lit- 
erature and the bright illustrations make a magazine that should be on every 
library table." The Oregonian, of Portland, Oregon, says: **No magazine in 
the land is better illustrated. Everything in it is fresh, bright and timely." 
The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Seattle, Washington, says: **In poiijt of time- 
liness, interest and general value, the magazine ranks high and is a credit to 
the city." 

The price of The Pacific Monthly is $1 per year,, ten cents per copy. Send 
25 cents to the publishers, Chamber of Commerce building, Portland, Oregon, 
for a three months' trial subscription. 


Honor Where Honor is Due 

O know that The Souvenir owes its very existence to the spirit of 
generosity and helpfuhiess can not but add to its interest and 
heighten its claim upon public attention. Nearly every page attests 
to the work of some kind hand. Out of the best thought of our best 
people in this monument to Western Women builded. Each article 
contributed represents the writer's part in erecting this memorial structure. 
To these helpers an acknowledgment is due. From their busy lives they have 
given time and effort to commemorate the work and pioneer experiences of the 
women of the Pacific Northwest, who have performed no inconsiderable part 
in the formation of our commonwealth. 

It is not necessary here to enumerate these whose contributions make up 
the book, but there are those to be mentioned who, without considering whether 
this project, in a cold business sense, were a safe enterprise, gave of their sub- 
stance, that the plan of a book of this character might be carried on to its com- 
pletion, and place on record facts about our women, which should not be al- 
lowed to sink into oblivion. In this galaxy are Mrs. Phoebe Cranston Breyman, 
Mrs. Levi White, Mrs. John Poole, Mrs. Robert Lutke, Mrs. Sarah Pisher Hen- 
derson, Mrs. Eunice W. Luckey, Miss Alice P. Cornwall, Annice Jeffreys Myers, 
M. D., Mrs. Harriette Mundt, Prof. J. Burnham and Bishop B. Wistar Morris. 
May this outflow of human kindness return to enrich the givers with that which 
is more to be desired than gold. 

None of this needed assistance was accepted as a gift, but as a loan to be 
repaid, and we doubt not that the spirit which prompted this generous aid to 
our endeavor will continue to animate these givers to other noble deeds of help- 
fulness, that may make possible the highest achievements of some brave strug- 
glers against the adverse conditions that environ them. 

It is to the courtesy of Mr. W. E. Coman, of the Southern Pacific Railroad 
Company, that we owe our beautiful frontispiece, Crater Lake, as he kindly 
loaned us his fine oil painting by Mrs. Fountain to copy for the halftone plates. 
IMost unfortunately, through the mistake of the engravers, words not belong- 
ing there appear on the picture. These will be removed before another edi- 
tion of the book is published. 

Also the editor can not allow this little book to go to press without due ac- 
knowledgment to Miss Helen P. Spalding for valuable assistance rendered in 
compiling and arranging the various sketches from real life — the work of many 
hands — of which it is composed. 


Perfed Printing Plates 


N bur J nor an engraved plate^ the one thing pre- 
eminently to he considered is quality. This 
cannot be maintained with the best of mechani- 
cal appliances, unless supplemented with the 
highest attainable skill of ingenious twtists and 
craftsmen— men trained by years oi experience 
to do one thing well. Such a corps of careiuUy- 
chosen helpers we have; together with an up- 
to-date equipment. We are thus enabled to furnish you 
engraving of a standard of excellence inferior to none, at a 
reasonable price. 

We believe we merit your patronage, and will continue 
to work to that end. 

MAKING & BLAKE, 313 Occidental Avenue 






In yonder d)y. glory-c 


In yonder d)y. g.-. , . 

Where «n will vie with art to keep 
ct of thoie heroft green, 

□u piide ihould leap 

Among the honoreil nunei ihal b 
Her face toward the .I»»el, Mill- 
Her finger lifted lowud the kb 1 



TO"^ 202 Moin Librory 



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lyoa* ioanii may be recharged by bringing the books to the CIrcuiltlpn 0«M 

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